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GSC - Cellular Levels of organisation


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Name the three parts of a cheek cell.
Plasma Membrane
Plasma Membrane - Describe it and define its functions
It is a thin elastic membrane covering the cell.
It has two functions.
First it protects the cytoplasm.
Second it permits wate and certain subsances to pass through into the cell. It controls what substances enter or leave the cell and also ensures that the content of the cell does not leak out.
Nucleus - Describe and define its functions
Inside the cytoplasm lies the nucleus. The nucleus is covered by a nuclear membrane.
Within the nucleus are long thread like structures called chromosomes.
Located on the chromosomes are the hereditary characters called genes. They determine what an organism looks like as well as how the cell functions. Through the genes the nucleus controls all the functions of the cells.
Cytoplasm - Describe and define its funtions.
It is the jelly-like mass inside the cell membrane where most of the processes of the cell are caried out.
Within the cytoplasm different functions are carried out by different organelles.
These organelles are the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies and lysosomes.
Each organelle has its own membrane and contents.They serve the purpose of bringing together all the enzymes and other requirements for synthesizng or breaking down specific compounds as required by the cell.
List the different cell organelles
1. Mitochondria
2. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
3. Golgi Bodies
4. Lysosomes
Give another word for `power houses' of the cell
Describe Mitochondria
Each cell contains a number of mitochondria. Known as `power houses' of the cell.
Carbohydrates and fats are broken down in the mitochondrion to release energy.
Give another word for `suicide bags'
Describe ER Endoplasmic reticulum
It is a huge factory producing all kinds of chemicals for the functioning of the cell. It is a netwrok like bag inside the cell. It offers a large surface area of membranes on which the enzymes are located.
Many substances required by the cell are made in the ER e.g. fats and lipids. Substances like some proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm are modified here.
Describe Golgi bodies
Stacks of membrane covered bags. They take the substances made in the ER, package them and pass them on to the various arts of the cell where they are required.
Define Lysosomes
Smallest membrane covered bags containing enzymes which breakdown other cell constituents. Their major role is to recycle the cell material on the death of a cell. The are sometimes called suicide bags.
Give another word for `the packaging unit' ofthe cell
Golgi bodies.

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