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Anatomy cardiovascular intro


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Name 2 circuits of CV system
Pulmonary and Systemic
Pulmonary circuit constituents
Pulmonary veins, pulmonary arteries, right atrium, right ventricle
Systemic ciruit constituents
Left atrium, left ventricle, aorta to systemic arteries, systemic veins
Why does left side of the heart have more muscle
Right side only sends blood to the lungs, left side to the whole body, needs more force
Name three layers of the heart wall
Epicardium-simple squamous epithelium, connective tissue, fat
Myocardium - cardiac muscle
Endocardium-part thats in contact with blood, connective tissue and endothelium
What is the main function of valves
Ensure unidirectional flow
Name 4 chambers of the heart
Right atrium - receives blood from superior and inferior vena cava
Right ventricle- brings it to pulmonary trunk
Left atrium- received blood from lungs
Left ventricle - sends blood to aorta and rest of the body
Name valve between right atrium and ventricle
Tricuspid valve
Name valve between left atrium and ventricle
Bicuspid valve
Name location of pulmonary semilunar valve
At the base of pulmonary trunk
Name location of aortic semilunar valve
Right under aorta
Why do valves have fibrous covering
Provide point of attachment
Describe pathway of blood to the lungs
Superior and inferior vena cava -->Right atrium-->Right AV valve (tricuspid)-->Right Ventricle-->Pulmonary semilunar valve-->Pulmonary arteries--> gas exchange in lungs
Describe pathway of blood from the lungs
Pulmonary veins-->Left Atrium-->Left AV valve (bicuspid)--> Left ventricle-->Aortic Semilunar valve-->Aorta-->Gas Exchange Peripheral--> Systemic Veins
Arteries go... heart, Veins go... heart
Away from, towards
Name 3 layers of a blood vessel
1. Tunica Intima - one layer of simple squamous epithelium
2.Tunica Media- smooth muscle
3. Tunica Adventitia- thick fibrous connective tissue, also called tunica externa
Arteries Vs Veins
Arteries have smaller lumen, thicker muscular level
Veins have valves, and more connective tissue
Name 3 types of arteries
Elastic attery - lot of elastin, aorta, pulmonary trunk, need to endure large pressures coming out of heart
Muscular artery - most arteries of the body, less elastin, more muscle
Arteriole- smallest artery, still has 3 layers, less muscle cells, very little outside tissue
Vasa vasorum
provide blood supply to large arteries
precursor - arteriosclerosis, leads to CAD, buildup of plaque causes narrowing of lumen
Sensing pressure, located at carotid sinus and aortic arch
Detecting chemical composition of the blood and plasma, located at carotid and aortic bodies, coccygeal body
Name three types of veins
Large - superior, inferior vena cavae
Medium - most veins in the body, have valves
Venule - smallest veins, no valves, still have 3 layers
Describe a vein valve
Outgrowth of tunica interna, ensuring one way flow
Deep Veins
Generate pressure not by cardiac pump, but by skeletal muscle pump
Superficial veins
no muscle, will be damaged more easily
Varicose Veins
At pregnancy (higher blood volume), not moving much. Can be fixed by obliterating vein without having to excise it
Single cell layered, providing highly effective osmosis
Name 3 types of capillaries
Continuous - tight junctions, most common type
Fenestrated -holes in epithelial cells, eye, kidney, big organs(hormones exchange)
Sinusoid - largest holes, bone marrow
Name two types of blood barrier
Blood brain barrier
Blood testes barrier
Selectively permeable, problem to get a drug in
What is a portal system
venous circuit involving two capillary beds, capillary bed is drained by a set of veins and these veins deliver blood to another capillary bed that is in turn drained by another series of veins
Name two portal systems
Hepatic portal system- involves drainage of GI and liver
Hypothalamic Hypopheseal portal system - involves delivery of hormones to hypophysis
Is there a renal portal system
It is not called portal system, but blood passes through two sets of arterial capillaries
Arteries do not always end in capillary beds, they can connect with other arteries, do not have valves so backfilling can occur
Name locations with poor collateral circulation
those are "end arteries", ending at capillary bed
Kidney and Spleen
Heart and Lungs
Metaphysis of long bones
Vascular Shunt
Communications between arteries and veins that bypass capillary beds, typically accompanied by sphincters to regulate flow into the shunt or capillary bed
What are vascular shunts important for?
Distribution of blood
Absorption from GI
Regulation of BP
Temperature regulation
Wide irregular veins, sites of phagocytosis, found in liver, spleen, bone marrow and suprarenal glands
Cavernous Tissue
Arterioles open into numerous venous spaces separated by fibrous septa, drained by venules, found in erectile tissure and nasal cavity
Lymphatic system
Returns excess fluid back to the venous system
rich in macromolecules, large proteins and particulate matter
Functions of lymph system
Transport lymph and cells, absorption and transport of fat, defense mechanisms
Lymph vessels
blind ended pouches, highly permeable, very low pressure, drain lipids from GI tract
Have basal lamina, valves and three layers - tunica intima, tunica media and tunica adventitia
Name areas that do not have lymph vessels
Cornea, epidermis, hair, nails, articular cartilage, cns, bone marrow
Name two major lymph ducts
Thoracic duct + cisterna chyli, right lymphatic duct
Lymphatic capillaries
Consist of a layer of endothelium with no basal lamina
What does movement of lymph depend on?
Filtration pressure
Contraction of muscles
arterial pulsations
Respiratory movement
Smooth Muscle in vessels
Inflammation of lymph vessel
Inflammation of lymph node
Swelling caused by lymph, usually seen in breast cancer

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