# AUGUST PHYSICAL SCIENCE

## Terms

copy deck
For equation F=mv^2/r; just b/c r dec doesn't mean Fc is inc; why?
#
(T/F) Fluids with low viscocity can hold off turbulence better than high viscous fluids.
#
(T/F) Density depends on viscosity
#
(T/F) Pressure different means that the fluid can't flow.
#
If there is a pressure different, can a fluid accelerate?
#
(T/F) Bernouli's: when fluid rises, pressure goes down.
#
K is force force over area so for muscle K is equal to what?
#
If the size of something is enlarged by a linear factor x, maxx_new=x^3*m_old
#
For tension at the top of a pendulum, the tension is equal to:
#
(T/F) An idealized (frictionless) pendulum will keep oscillating the same way forever: maintain amplitude theta.
#
For a pendulum, where along the path is the tension the largest?
#
How does acceleraton at the top of a mountain compared to at sea level?
#
Why is mass often missing in certain equations?
#
Give me an example of when mass is often missing in certain equations.
#
In a pendulum, how does the centripetal force compare to the tension?
#
The period of SHM dpeends only on what variables?
#
Why is it more difficult to illegally tap into fiber optic systems than into copper cable systems?
#
(T/F) Intrafred light contains more energy than visible light.
#
(T/F) When increase the frequency, you also increase the refractive index (generally)
#
(T/F) EM radiation with short wavelength
#
dB=10log(I/Io)
#
Can only get total internal reflection when traveling from a medium with higher n to a lower n
#
(T/F) The frequence of a wave doesn't change as it travels from one medium to another.
#
(T/F) B/c intranuclear electrostatic repulsion w/in a more crowded nucleus is much greater, more neutrons are required to keep bigger nuclei together.
#
What is a fissile?
#
H+H+H+H => 4He + 2x + energy
#
(T/F) Free neutrons are always incorporated into surrounding nuclei.
#
(T/F) Fact that something is a better ligand tells us that it has more electron density.
#
(T/F) All ionic cmpds are solids at room temperature.
#
(T/F) Ammonia chloride, NH4Cl, is ionic.
#
(T/F) Ionic cmpds only exist btw atoms of very different electronegativities with the EXCEPTION of ammonium salts and a handful of strong acids, cmpds consisting of all nonmetal elements are covalent and week electrolyes.
#
# The toxicity of ammonia and CO stems from the fact that these cmpds are better ligands than O2; that's why they replace oxygen in hemoglobulin.
#
# A molecule which has a trigonal pyramid shape is one that has 3 grps of bonding electrons and one group of nonbonding electrons.
#
# Formal Charge = Valence - 1/2(Bonding)-(Nonbonding).
#
# Current is a function of the SA of both electrolines (therfore surfae area of a piece of foil would be greater than a cylinder, plate, or spherical electrode)
#
What is the total current output of a battery only dependent upon?
#
# While it is true that a cell with a positive voltage will produce a positive current, a cell with a negative voltage (nonspontaneous rxn) is considered "dead" and will produce no current (I_cell=0.0)
#
# Value 2.303 is a conversion factor btw natural (base e) and common (base 10) logs.
#
# superscript <degrees>: 298K, 1ATM
#
# Ions will be colors if they have a partially filled d or f orbitals.
#
# Log of a small fraction is a negatice number.
#
# Pseudo law of chemistry: pressure only has an effect on gases (look for row 1 & 2 elements)
#
Work Energy Theorem
#
# Two particles of like chrage and equal mass are separated bya given distance. If mass of one particle is doubled, the repulsive force btw particles will be unchanged b/c repulsive force is dependent on charge on charge not mass.
#
# Field created by the source charge is indeed affected by the nature of the medium surrounding. If put in insulator will def dec E, the equation E=kQ/r^2 assumes that source charge is in vaccum.
#
# Sign of electric field only has to do with direction, not strength.
#
# v=sqrt(B/p) where v=velocity; B = bulk modulus (resistance to compression; p = density
#
# n = c/v where n=refractive index; c=speed of light; v=velocity in medium
#
# when given sin(theta), use since(theta) = opposute/hypoteneus
#
# A hammer is used to ddrive a nail into a board. Work is done in the act of driving the nail. Compared to the moment before the hammer strikes the nail, the mechanical energy of the hammer after its impact will be less, b/c the hammer has done work. The
#
# Archimedian's principle: an object is float on a fluid. The weight of the fluid displaced by the floating object is equal to the weight of the object.
#
# Only way to keep something floating is having the Fbuoyant force equal to the weight.
#
# An object is sinking in fluid, the weight of the fluid displaced by the sinking object is less than the weight of the object (weight > Fbuoyant is only way to get object to sink!)
#
# Buoyant force = p_liquid*V*g
#
# Ideal fluid is incompressible and nonturbulent.
#
# High fluid flow speed implied lower fluid pressure by continuity equation.
#
# Fluid flow should be constant throughout a pipe.
#
# A magnetic field is created only by electric charges in motion.
#
# Motionless charged particle doesn't create a magnetic field.
#
# B = (u i)/(2 pi r) ; increasing i and decreasing r will increase B.
#
# Virtual images are always upright.
#
# Lens power is the reciprocol of focal length: P=1/f
#
# When looking for product of beta+ emission, look for elements where one less proton.
#
# Kidney-liver: two highly vascular organs whose primary function is to purify blood by filtering fluids thru cellular membranes.
#
# number of electrons = 2n^2.
#
# The hydrogen ion H+ doesn't have an electrons so the quantum #s could not be 1, 0, 0 +1/2
#
# 4f subshell is composed of 7 degenerate orbitals, not 14 (14 electrons though).
#
# A radical has an odd # of valence electrons⬦ ie: BrO3 = 7+6(3)=25 (Radical b/c odd # e's)
#
# sp^2 hybridization: 120 degrees trigonal planar.
#
# radicals remove electrons from other atoms to complete their octets => act as oxidants/oxidizing agents.
#
# Lewis base: donates a pair of nonbonding e's to form a covalent bond.
#
# Coordination complexes are covalently bonded complexes btw nonmetal ligands of transition metal ion.
#
# Si is a metalloid.
#
# Si-F bond is very polar; not ionic in nature.
#
# Most transition metals are vividly colored b/c they contain partially filled d orbitals whose electrons undergo transition at visible wavelengths. Therefore, transition metals that aren't colored have either 0 or 10 e's in their d orbital.
#
# The ionic solid with the highest MP will be the one with the strongest ionic interactions.
#
# Nearly all substances expand and become less dense when heated. This is due to increased motion of molecules which increases the spaces btw the molecules.
delta(V)=k*Q*delta(1/r); W_byfield=-q*delta(V)
# A heterogeneous catalyst is one that has a phase different from the reactants which it is catalyzing.
#
# The rate law only depends upon the reactants in the rate-determine (slow) step of the overal reaction.
#
# A catalyst only has a net effect on a rxn that is not at equilibrium, catalyst increases the rate at which a system reaches equilibrium.
#
# Walls of a good coffe cup are insulators => they prevent heat transfer with the environment. This is an adiabatic (or closed) system.
#
# Heat capacity of one gram of a substance is called the material's specific heat.
#
# SPECIFIC HEAT = HEAT CAPACITY / MASS (g)
#
# A redox rxn supercedes all other types of rxns, that is, if a redox is occuring in a rxn regardless of whether a precipitate acid or base is being produced, the rxn is still classfied as a redox rxn.
#
# Higher reduction potential => more corrosive resistant.
#
# If 2 metals in contact, metal with high Ered will replace electrons lost to oxygen by taking them from the metal with the lower reduction potential. The one with the lower Ered will serve as the sacrificial anode.
#
# The one with the lower Ered will serve as the sacrificila anode.
#
# All metal oxides are alkaline. Therefore, immersion in an acid bath will strip these protective coats anda llow the acid to begin to oxidize the metal. For many metals, such as Al, Zn, and Mg, this rxn is rather fast and copious amounts of H2(g) can be
#
# Electrolysis: an applied current is consuemd during electrolysis => H must be endothermic.
#
# Electrochecmial and electrolytic cells require a FLUID solution to facilitate ion migration => solids would NOT work.
#
# Reverse rxn of a nonspontaneous rxn is spontaneous => the products of electrolysis will react upon contact.
#
# Electrolytic cell: (+) anode ; (-) cathode
#
# Overall charge of water is zero (has dipole moment) => positive of dipole will point in direction of cathode (neg terminal) and neg poriton of dipole in anode direction. => will not move in either direction (no attractor) since no charge.
#
# Na reacts instantnly with metal, therefore Na metal will never be isolated as a product of an aqueous phase electrolysis => NaOH is produced.
#
# In the electrolysis of potassium fluoride, KF will produce potassium metal and fluorine gas. Fluorine gas is an extremely potent oxidzing agent => the best material to use to construct the electrodes might be a nonmetal covalen tconductor suhch as g
#
# alpha radiation is emission of Helium.
#
# Fluorescent molecules always emit photons of equal or less energy (and freq) than those absorbed.
#
# Nucleus decays: electrostatic repulsion propels alpha particle out of nucleus giving the particle kinetic energy => alpha particle then collides with an atom, transferring some of its KE to the atom's electrons elevating them into higher energy leve
#
# Atom can only fluoresce after it has promoted (excited) an e- into a higher energy level by absorbing energy.
#
# Increasing energy => decreasing stability.
#
# Colors classfied as opposite pairs: color #1-color\$2; if a nonemitting object has color #1, it must be absorbing color #1's opposite color, color #2 and vice versa.
#
# A ligand must be able to donate a nonbonding pair of electrons. Therefore, a ligand must always be a lewis base.
#
# All metal nitrates are soluble.
#
# Salt solubility rules: 1) All group I (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+ Cs+) and ammonium salts (NH4+) are soluble. 2) All nitrates (NO3-), perchlorates (ClO4-), and acetate salts (C2H3O2-) are soluble. 3) All silber (Ag+), lead (Pb2+/Pb4+) and mercury (Hg2 2+/Hg2+)
#
# All hydrophobic cmpds accumulate in the hydrophobic crevices of the body. Example: fat dposition on the interior of arterial walls.
#
# Assuming that crown ether is neutral and that the cation in the crown ether is potassium ion. The charge of the crown ether K+ complex ion is 1+ (0+1=1).
#
If xM is the concentration of a solution with 1:1 mixture of concentrated acid and water. The molarity of the conc acid would be 2x M.
#
# Nitric acid is a powerful oxidizing agent which oxidizes (CH3)2Hg into CO2, H2O, and Hg2+ (as the nitrate). Will find mercuric nitrate in sol C but no dimethyl mercury.
#
# Crown ethers increase the organic solubility of cations by encapsulating the ion w/ a relatively nonpolar shell.
#
# All ionic cmpds are soluble at RT, and have extrmeely lwow volatilities.
#
# Salts are nonvoltaile!
#
# Nitric acid is such a powerful oxidizing agent that it will never reduce anything.
#
# Chelation: process of forming a coordinate covalent bond btw and electron pair donator (ligand) and an electron pair acceptor (metal ion) => chelation is a lewis base rxn.
#
# metal ion: electron pair acceptor
#
# since G^deg=-NFE^deg, when cell has positive voltage, the rxn must be spontaneous.
It is a mionimum boiling azeotrope w/ ethanol as the most volatile component. Can assume that the component that is more abundant in the critical composition is the more volatile of the 2 compoennts.
# Graphite is good electrical conductor.
#
# For galvanic cell, if precipitate out the copper ions the rxn would completely stop (b/c it relies on converting Cu2+ + 2e- => Cu(s).
#
# If a student accidentally placed the zinc electrode into the copper solution: the light bulp would go out; zin electrode would be immediately encrusted with a layer of copper metal; solution would wamp up b/c there is nolong an organized electrical flo
#
# All Na salts are soluble so you would never expect a precipitate to form.
#
# Sodium carbonate is a weak base by definition but it is a strong enough to make solutions significantly alkaline when dissolved.
You can determien the cutoff point for reactivity by comparing the reduction potentials of these metals w/ the reduction potential of the hydrogen ions the metal reacts with.
# Neutralizatoin of a base by acid is always an exothermic process.
#
# Zn(s) reduces Cu2+ to Cu(s). Zn2+, H+, and Cu2+ are all in their most oxidized state and lack the electrons required to reduce one another.
Zinc electrode as anode in a 1M Zn2+ solution; hydrogen electrode as cathode in 1M H+ solution.
# Precipitation reduces the amnt of dissolved ions in solution, there, with all other things being equal, solutions w/ precipitates are expected to experience less of a bp elecation and mp depression than solution w/o precipitates (I is less for w/ preci
#
# pH of 7 at the equivalent pt is indicative of a strong acid titrated with a weak base or vice versa.
#
# According to Le Chateliers principle, acidic gases tend to be more soluble in water than neutral gases are b/c they partially dissociation in solution. Addition of acid would be expected to diminish the amnt of dissociated gas in solution, & thus d
#
# The most effective way of driving a dissolved acidic gas from soluton is to add more acid to decrease the solubility of acid gas and then boil to further decrease the solubility.
# Titrating a solution of weak base (such as NH3) w/ a strong acid would result in an acidic salt of the equivalent point.
#
# weak bases: NH3 (ammonia & amines)
#
# Strong bases: Group I hydroxides, Some group II hydroxides (Ca, Sr, Ba); Metal amides (NaNH2; since amide ion NH2- will react completely with H2O to form NH3 and OH- ions)
#
# Salt solubility Rules: 1) All Group I (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs+) and ammonium (NH4+) salts are soluble; 2) All nitrate (NO3-), perchlorate (ClO4-) and acette (C2H3O2-) salts are soluble; 3) All silber (Ag+), lead (Pb2+/Pb2++) and mercury (Hg2 2+/Hg2+) salts
#
# Wind machine extracting energy from moving air mass must have less speed after passing through the machine than before (due to KE). By continuity equation, lower speed v implies a greater cross sectional area.
#
# By continuity equation, lower speed v implies a greater cross sectional area A.
#
# More rotational KE => more efficient if power is proportion to omega.
#
# Bernoulli effect: pressure difference causes a hot force (the lift) perp to the flow.
#
# Resolution is the process of separation two enantiomers from each other.
#
# Original # of parents nuclei, No, is equal to the # which have decayed plus # which have not.
#
# If something is anomalistically young age determined by the uranium thorium method, it could be that there is more uranium-239 recently added to the rock so that one would derive a younger age b/c the ratio of daughter to parent is lower.
#
# Since decay of parents is intilaly fast, intial production of daugthers is fast as well. (radiactive decay).
#
# Freezing point and melting point are analagous.
#
# If something has a high crystalliation (melting) temp, this implies that it has the strong intermolecular forces so need to figure out the ionic changes.
#
# If something no longer resonates at another object's resonsant frequency, amplitude will decrease due to destructive interference.
#
# The speed of a wae that travels along the bridge depends on the internal properties of the medium such as density of the bridge. B/c mechanical waves depeneds on internal properties of the medium.
#
# Frequency is in terms of oscillations per second.
#
# f_n=n*f_1 ; second harmonic freq is equal to 2x the fundamental frequency.
#
# Neutralization of 99.9% acid tlels us that for every 1000 H+ originally in solution, only one remains.
#
# Compression of a solud object is governed by the equation: F/A=Y(deltaL/L)
#
# Decreasing temperature increases viscocity of the electrolyte.
#
# When temperature increases across a resistor,when electrons collide w/ atoms of the resistor, the vibration of the atoms increases and the atom KE increases. As a result, the electron transfer some of its KE to the atom so the electron's KE decreases a
#
# Semipermeable membrane: alllows movement of solvent molecules but not solute molecules.
#
# Sufficient energy will break covalent bonds.
#
# Phosphorous and boron atoms enhance the donuctivity of Si b/c they have diff # of valence electrons. Si has 4, P has 5 and boron has 3.
#
# 1eV is equal to energy requeired to move an electron through a potential difference of one volt.
#
# Thermal expansion of a solud: delta(L) = alpha * L * delta(T)
#
# Paricle of light is known as a photon: E=hf (h~particle; f~wave)
#
# PF5: five bonding electron pairs and number lone pairs => trigonal bipyramid.
#
# To tell if something is a catalyst or a reactant, check to see if its been used up (reactant) or remains unchanged (catalyst).
#
# Electrostatic interaction: pos and neg charge attract each other.
#
# London forces are weak attractive forces btw instanteous and induced dipoles occuring in nonpolar molecules.
#
# Concave lens have negative focal lengths. Concave lenses are diverging and thus can only have cirtual images thus I must be negative.
#
# Nitric acid is a powerful oxidizing agent due to the nitrate ion, and an effective solvent for the dissolution of metal precipitates b/c metal ion-nitrate solutes are alwayss soluble.
#
# Transition metal atoms may produce various mixtures of ions in different oxidation states.
#
# Decomposition of a molecule due to heat is permanent.
#
# Gases warm as they are compressed.
#
# The vapor pressure of any substance is independent of external pressure.
#
# When gas is compressed, it is receiving work from the surrounding (aka. exchanging heat with the surroundings).
#
# When a gas is compressed, it is heated and loses heat to the surroundings if the system is not insualted.
#
# Metals are particularly susceptible to oxidizing agents such as chlorine (relaly electronegative gas).
#
# Helium is a more ideal-behaving gas than nitrogen b/c nitrogen has strong Londong dispersion forces due to greater # of electrons and surace area of the N2 molecule.
#
# With weaker attractive forces, the helium molecules will exert a slightly greater pressure than N2.
#
# Due to its small mass, He atoms will move faster at any temp than N2, and will escape from any vessel at a greater rate.
#
# He is an inert gas and will not participate in any chemical reactions.
#
# Total energy retained within a hot gas depends upon the change in its temperature, specific heat and the amount of gas.
#
# Work done by gravity on a pendulum is equal to the negative change in the gravitaitonal PE: W=-delta(PE)=-Mgdelta(h)=-Mg(L-Lcos(theta))
#
# Effects of air resistance on a projectile: take less time to reach its peak than it does to descend from its peak b/c air resistance/friction always opposes the direction of the projectile's velocity.
#
# Continuous spectrum with a broad spectrum => characteristic of blackbody or thermal emitter.
Pco2=(44g/mol)/(22.4L/mol)=2g/L
# Blackholes emit radiation at any temp, but only emit visible light when very hot. (Also, blackbody only depends on the temperature not the type of element).
#
# Diffraction: sprading of a wave after it has pssed thru an aperature.
#
# Light can act as a wave so doppler effect applies to EM waves; if light is moving away then the freq is decreasing and the wavelength is increasing.
#
# Converging lens => convex; f is positive => image is positive (real and inverted).
#
# Having passenger raise their arms would decrease the rotational inertia of the loaded train (b/c more mass is near the center of rotation) => increase it's speed.
#
# All Group I and ammonium salts are soluble so one wouldn't expect that water contamined with small quantitiy of this stuff will precipitate something.
#
# For CO2 + H2O <=> H2CO3; if add base, it will neutralize the acid and increase the solubility of CO2 in the solution.
#
# CO2 + H2O <=> H2CO3; if acid solution were titrated when some CO2 remained dissolved in sulfuric acid solution, then the calcualted sulfur content of the coal would be too high b/c more KOH would be required to titrate the solution to the neutral
#
# When heated, tungsten(IV) oxide, WO3, reacts with hydrogen gas to produce metallic tungsten and water vapor, the following reaction occurs: WO3 + 3H2 => W + 3H2O.
#
# f = v * A
#
# H2O molecules are much more polar than H2S molecules b/c O is more electronegative than S. This causes much stronger hydrogen bonding btw water molecules than btw H2S molecules.
#
What is the work done by the electric force on the negative charge as q moves form position X to position Y?
#
# Ionic interactions are always stronger than dipole interactions.
#
# The water vapor pressure of salt solutions are lwer than that of pure water b/c ion-dipole forces are stronger than dipole dipole interactions.
#
# Ksp=8.3e-17; x^2=8.3e-17 => x=9e-9
#
# To figure out how pH will change with a saturated solution of a metal hydroxide, need to see if its exothermic. If it is, then it will be less basic as temperature increases.
#
# The conjugate base of a strong acid (such as chloride, the conjugate base of the strong HCL) is pH neutral in solution.
#
# The conjugate acid of a weak base (such as Pb2+, the conjugate acid of the weak base lead hydroxide) is actually slightly acidic. The saturated lead chloride solution can be expected to be slightly acidic.
#
# Enthalpy changes of the rxns are not equal. If the enthalpy changes of 2 rxns are different, then the Gibb's free energy are also differ. Activation energies of the rxns are also not equal.
#
# The change of disorder of the molecules is independent of bond energy.
#
# Stability is increased by higher bond energy and lower zero-point energy. Ie. C-D bond is stronger than C-H bond, the rxn will be slowed.
#
# If OD bond is slightly greater strength than an OH bond, DNO2 must be a slightly weaker acid than HNO2.
#
# CO2 is an invisible gas.
#
# Hydrogen gas is produced during redox rxns.
#
# Since neutralization rxns btw an acid and base evolves heat, it is likely that this vapor is nothing more than some steam produiced at locally hot part of the solution before stirring.
#
# When solution is being diluted, its entropy is increasing b/c the solute molecuels are speading out.
#
# Heat released from the dilution of concentrated HCl comes from the formation of ion-dipole interactions in solvation shells; reason this process is exothermic is b/c the addition of more water moelcules allows for many more ion-dipole interaction btw H
#
# Force of spring is Hooke's Law: F=kx
#
# Two blocks some mass are placed in contact and allowed to reach thermal equilibrium; T2>T1 and C1>C2; heat will flow from block 2 to block 1. Since block 1 has the greater specific heat, its magnitude of temperature change will be smaller than th
#
# If an object is real, will have NEGATIVE magnification.
#
# For the equilibrium constant for the whole reaction, multiply all the individual rate constants for each step of the rxn.
#
# Adiabatic means insulated so heat is not allowed to enter or escape the box.
#
# Energy is proportional to current. Energy carried by electricity depeends upon on ly two things: current and vultage.
#
# Compressing gases warm, expanding gases cool.
#
# Oscillating current: repeatedly moving away from equil pos and turn.
#
# Direct current: move away from equil position and remain there.
#
# Give AC voltage source is rms.
#
# If assume that all gases are at the same temp and pressure, then the one with the lowest moleclar mass will have the lowest density => greatest lift.
#
# Isochoric: constant volume.
#
# Isobaric: constant pressure.
#
# Isothermal: constant temp.
#
# Adiabatic: w/o exchange of heat btw system and its surroundings.
#
# The pressure at higher altitute is less than that of the surface so as the parcel ascents, it expands. An expanding gas cools (just as aerosol cans and scuba tanks cool when gas is let out of them).
#
# For transition metals, can take one electron from (n+1)s orbital to make sd orbital have 5 or 10 e's. You cannot take both (n+1)s electron though!
#
# For a DC circuit, if all light bulbs are connected in parallel, if have one light bulb go out, the light of each of the other bulbs stays the same.
#
# When two substances form a maximum boiling azeotrope, the mixture has a higher BP than that corresponding to the vapor pressure predicted by Raoult's Law. Results from decrease in the vapor pressures of the constitutent species.
#
# An increase in the vapor pressure of the constitutents would result in a lower BP which is characteristic of a minimum boiling azeotrope.
#
# Two species being mixed together don't change the characteristic specific heats of each other.
#
# When add just a little salt, the BP won't change too much b/c there is very little salt interacting with the water.
#
An ethanol and water solution can be distilled to, at best, a 95% ethanol sol;ution, which boils at 78 deg C. What can be said about this mixture?
#
# For a negative charge, the force F is in the oppositive direction to the electric field.
#
# F=qE=ma
#
# Metals in their elemental, or free, form can only be oxidized, not reduced.
#
# Since metals in their elemental or free form can only be oxidized, not reduced, rxn of HCl w/ metals proceed when electrons are lost from the metal, thereby reducing the hydrogen ions to H2 gas.
#
Where is the cutoff point btw those metals that will react and those that won't with Hcl?
#
# Half cell potential of the hydrogen electrode at 1M concentration is always zero.
#
What would be most useful for determing the reduction potential of zin (copper doesn't exist) ?
#
# An incandescent lights' filament will vaporize at a faster rate than it would at normal atmospheric pressure.
#
# An inert gas (unlike oxygen) won't cause oxidation but it dose slow down the process of sublimation. The ultimate purpose of the inert gas is to allow the filament to be made hotter w/o being destoryed too fast by vaporization.
#
# Converging streamlines indicate increasing speed of the fluid; diverging streamlines indicate decreasing speed of the fluid.
#
# Since we must put in heat to turn the water into steam, the steam must have a greater internal energy.
#
# When steam condenses back into water, it releases energy as heat.
#
# If two openings to a pipe are open, the pressure is constant since both eends are at Patm.
#
# Neils Bohr Energy of electron falling: E=-A(1/ni^2 - 1/nf^2) where ni=initial quantum #; nf=final quantum #.
#
# pH = pKa + log[conjguatebase]/[acid]
#
# The intensity of a light source is the # of photons produced per unit time; increaseing number of photons striking metal place => increases electrons being ejected from metal.
#
# Increasing the frequency of the light source would NOT increase the # of electrons ejected from the surface of the metal; it would INCREASE the enrgy of the incident photons (photon that strikes the metal will eject an electron w/ a higher KE) but it w
#
# For both galvanic and electrolytic cells, electrons move from anode to cathode.
#
# C=k*eo*A/d
#
# The thresho0ld frequency of light needed to break the clusters down into their constitutent molecules is used to derive the nergy the energy of the clusters => "energy of the clusters" is the nergy released when a cluster is formed.
#
# The dipole of HCl is larger than NO so more readily to induce a dipole.
#
# EM spectrum: radio waves => microwaves => far infrared => Near infrared => ROYGB => UV light
#
# Tshaped molecule requries 4 atoms.
#
# The shape of SO2 is bent
#
# E=hf=hv/lambda
#

250