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MCAT topics


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What information does IR spectroscopy give?
Types of bonds present in an organic compound, but NOT information of how many.
What are the IR peaks for carbonyls, alcohol/acid OH bond, amine?
Carbonyl = ~1750, OH = ~3000(broad), amine = ~3000(sharp)
What peaks, besides carbonyl, are found near 3000 on the IR spectrum?
acid/alcohol OH (broad, above 3000), amine (sharp, above 3000), alkane CH(sharp, below 3000)
In NMR, what is downfield and what is upfield?
downfield = left, upfield = right
In NMR, what does the area under a peak represent?
The number of nucelei represented by that signal
In NMR, what determines the ability to excite a nucleus?
If there is a dense cloud of electrons around the nucleus, it will be harder to excite. If it is deshielded (by an electronegative neighbor) it will be easier to excite.
Where do NMR peaks for hydrogens lie when they are attached to (a) sp3 carbons? (b)sp2 carbons?
(a)sp3 = 0 to 5, (b)sp2 = 5 to 10
In H NMR, what does the number of peaks in a cluster represent?
The number of neighboring (within 3 bonds away) H +1, for hydrogen that is not of the same type as the hydrogen being considered.
In C NMR, what does the number of peaks in a cluster of peaks represent?
The number of H attached.
What does UV-vis used for?
Conjugated systems.
What does the detector in mass spectroscopy measure?
Mass/charge ratio
On a mass spectrum, what is the base peak and what does it represent?
Base peak: tallest peak. Most abundant ion.
What does the rightmost peak on a mass spectrum represent?
The original compound. Its position reveals the molecular weight of the compound.
Experimentally, how is rate determined?
Rate = change in [A] / time
rate law
rate = k* [A]^x * [B]^y
What increment of temperature causes rate to double?
10 degrees C
What ions are insoluble?
carbonates (CO3^2-), phosphates (PO4^3-), sulfides (S^2-), sulfites (SO3^2-) --- EXCEPT WHEN COMBINED WITH ALKALI
When are chlorides, bromides and iodides insoluble?
When combined with Ag+, Pb2+ or Hg2+
What are the solubility rules of calcium, strontium and barium?
All metal oxides and hydroxides are insoluble, except when combined with alkalis, Ca2+, Sr2+ or Ba2+.

All sulfate salts are soluble, excepts when combined with Ca2+, Sr2+ or Ba2+.
What is normality?
number of gram equiv weights of a solute per litre of sol'n. Calc: molarity * n, where n = moles of reactive species produces per mole of solute.
Colligative properties
depend on number of solute particles, but not on their identity.
Boiling point elevation/ freezing point depression
Change in temp = K * molality
osmotic pressure
molarity * RT
virus lifecycles
lytic: injected material replicates and assembles into new viruses, and the cell lyses.
lysogenic: injected DNA incorperates into host DNA and is passed to new generation through binary fission.
ionization energy
energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
gib's free energy
deltaG = deltaH - TdeltaS
= deltaG(standard) +RTlnQ
standard deltaG
deltaG(Standard) = -RTlnKeq
Average kinetic energy of a gas
E = mv^2/2 = 3*kT/2, k = Boltzman constant
average molecular speed
c(avg) = ( 3RT / MM )^(1/2)
MM= molar mass
solubility product constant
Ksp = [A^n+]^m[B^m-]^n
what is the order of energy in hybridized bonds?
increased s character = decreased energy
Cell diagram
anode|anode solution||cathode solution|cathode
reduction potential
increased reduction potential means increased tendency to be reduced
EMF = E(std)red + E(std)ox
EMF and Gibs free energy
deltaG = -nFEcell, Ecell = emf
Effect of concentration on EMF
Ecell = E(std)cell -RTlnQ/(nF)
EMF and the equilibrium constant
nFE(std)cell = RTlnKeq
redox reaction in which an element is both reduced and oxidized
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
pH = pKa + log([conj base]/[weak acid])
pOH = pKb + log([conj acid]/[weak base])
equation for speed, given initial velocity, acceleration and time
v = vo + at
equation for displacement, given initial velocity, acceleration and time
d = vot + at^2/2
equation for velocity, given initial velocity, acceleration and displacement
v^2 = vo^2 +2ad
average velocity equation
v(avg) = (vo + v)/2
displacement, given average velocity and time
d = v(avg)*t
P = W/t
Work = change in mechanical energy = Fd
kelvin to celcius
Tc = Tk-273
celcius to farenheight
Tc = Tf*9/5 +32
thermal expansion
deltaL = alpha*L*deltaT
work in term of pressure
W = PdeltaV
first law of thermodynamics
change in internal energy = heat transfered to body - work done by system
entropy change
entropy change = heat / temperature
weight in terms of density
Fg = density * volume *g
absolute pressure in a liquid
P = P(surface) + density*g*height
archimides principle
a body wholly or partially emersed in a fluid will be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the FLUID that it displaces.
1eV = ?
1eV is the change in potential energy of a single electron as it moves through a potential difference of 1 volt
Coulomb's law
F = kq1q2/r^2
electric field
E = F/qo = kq/r^2
electric potential
Amount of work required to move a positive test charge from infinity to a point, divided by test charge.
V = W/qo = kq/r
Electrical potential energy
Ep = qV = kqQ/r = 1/(4*pi*permitivity of free space) * qQ/r
force on a charge moving through a magnetic field
F = qvBsin(angle)
I = delta(charge) / delta(time)
force on a current carrying wire
F = ILBsin(angle)
Magnetic field created by current carrying wire
B = (permeability of free space)*i/(2*pi*r)
power dissipated by a resistor
P=IV = I^2R = V^2/R
C = Q/V =(permitivity of free space)*A/d
Electric field between plate of a capacitor
E = V/q
I in alternating current
I = Imax*sin(2*pi*f*t)
Irms = Imax/2^(1/2)
force constant k for spring vs pendulum
spring->k, pendulum->k = mg/L
period T for spring vs pendulum
angular frequency for spring vs pendulum
spring -> (k/m)^(1/2)
pendulum-> (g/L)^(1/2)
sound level
sould level = 10*log(I/Io)
relation of object, image and focal length
1/object + 1/image = 1/focal = 2/radius
m = -i/o
voltage across plate of a fully charged capacitor
equals to voltage applied when it was initially charged
potential in a cell
add reduction potentials of half reactions... do not multiply by coefficients
polarity of DNA
highly polar
effective nuclear charge
The effective nuclear charge is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a multielectron atom. The term "effective" is used because the shielding effect of negative electrons prevents higher orbital electrons from experiencing the full nuclear charge
inverse of the tangent...
Explain equivalence point and half equivalence point
Equivalence point occurs during a chemical titration when equal amounts of acid and base %28chemistry%29 have been reacted. A graph of pH against concentration becomes almost vertical at the equivalence point.
Half equivalence point: pt when 1/2 the titrant at equivalence has been added... when pKa = pH.
volume flow rate
v1A1 = v2A2 = constant
equation for area of a circle
kepler's law
The orbit of a planet about a star is an ellipse with the star at one focus.
Where does fetal gas exchange occur?
In the placenta. Maternal and fetal blood don't mix, however.
How do fetal and adult hemoglobin compare?
fetal hemoglobin has a greater affinity for oxygen than adult hemoglobin. also, fetal blood has 50 higher concentration of hemoglobin than maternal blood.
What happens in the stomach after protein ingestion?
protein in the stomach stimulates gastrin release (stimulates HCl secretion), pepsinogen release (converted by HCl to pepsin which breaks protein into peptides) and causes muscle contractions.
What initially happens to peptides in the intestine?
Pancreas secretes enterokinase, aminopepsidase and dipepsidase into the small intestine, which breaks peptides into single AAs and dipeptides
What happens to amino acids and dipeptides in the intestine?
They are absorbed into the epithelial lining cells of the small intestine by ACTIVE transport. They then enter the bloodstream through capillary transport.
What are the basic steps of the urea cycle?
amino acids, which were absorbed in the small intestine, sometimes are catabolized by cells, producing amonia. This amonia enters the urea cycle to produce urea, which exits the body in urine.
How does conjugation affect absorption of light?
The greater the conjugation, the more strongly electrons will be stabilized, thus the lower the frequency will excite it, thus the less energy required in a photon... benzene only has 3 conjugations, therefore requires more energy to excite its electrons
When is ring strain smallest?
In six membered rings
How is an immune response prevented in delivery of an Rh+ baby from an Rh- mother
Administer anti Rh+, which will coat the fetal cells, and by "hiding" the antigen... THus the mother will not have an immune response and will not produce her own antibodies.
In IR, where does the phenol group show up?
organic compounds always have peaks where in the IR spectrum?
3800-3300 due to carbon backbone
where is the peak for OH groups in the IR spectrum
3350-3250, broad
Growth hormone
From Anterior Pituitary. Stimulates bone and muscle growth
Hormones from Anterior pituitary (6)
growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone
from anterior pituitary. Stimulates milk production and secretion.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
from Anterior Pituitary. stimulate adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids
Thyroid-stimulating hormone
from Anterior Pituitary. Stimulates thyroid to produce thyroid hormones
Luteinizing hormone
from Anterior Pituitary. Stimulates ovulation in females; testosterone synthesis in males
Follicle-stimulating hormone
From anterior pituitary. Stimulates follicle matruation in females, spermatogenesis in males.
Hypothalamus hormones
Stored in posterior pituitary. Oxytocin and Vasopressin (ADH)
from hypothalamus. stimulates uterine contractions during labor, and milk secretion during lactation
from hypothalamus. (ADH), Stimulates water reabsorption in the kidneys
Thyroid hormones
thyroid hormone, calcitonin
thyroid hormone
from thyroid. stimulates metabolic activity
from thyroid. decreases blood calcium level.
parathyroid hormones
parathyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone
increases blood calcium level
adrenal cortex hormones
glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids
from adrenal cortex, increases blood glucose leve and decreases protein synthesis
from adrenal cortex, increases water reabsorption in the kidneys
adrenal medulla hormones
from adrenal medulla. increases blood glucose level and heart rate
pancreas hormones
glucagon, insulin, somatostatin
from pancreas. lowers blood glucose and increases storage of glycogen.
from pancreas. stimulates conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver; increases blood glucose.
from pancreas. suppresses secretion of glucagon and insulin
testis hormones
from testis. maintains male secondary sexual characteristics
ovary/placenta hormones
estrogen, progesterone
from ovary/placenta. maintains female secondary sexual characteristics
from ovary/placenta. promotes growth/maintenance of the placenta
pineal hormones
from pineal gland. unclear role in humans
heart hormones
atrial natriuretic hormone
atrial natriuretic hormone
from heart. involved in osmoregulation
thymus hormones
from thymus. stimulates T lymphocyte development
When are alcohols water soluble?
>5 carbon chain is not soluble
Compare phenols and benzyl/regular alochols
phenols are quite acidic, other ones aren't. phenols react with strong bases (not weak ones though)
Smooth ER
involved in lipid synthesis and detox of drugs and poisons. Transport of proteins from rough ER to Golgi apparatus
Golgi apparatus
protein modification (eg - glycosylation) and distributes them in vessicles, which are destined for internal or external targets
organelle in nucleus specialized in production of ribosomal RNA.
Where does digestion of carbs, protein and lipids begin?
Carbs: mouth, protein: stomach, lipid: small intestine
Carbohydrate enzymes
salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase, maltase, sucrase, lactase
salivary amylase
produced in salivary glands, functions in mouth, hydrolyzes starch to maltose
pancreatic amylase
produced in pancreas, functions in small intestine, hydrolyzes starch to maltose
produced in intestinal glands, functions in small intestine, hydrolyzes maltose to two glucose molecules
produced in intestinal glands,functions in small intestine, hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose
produced in intestinal glands, functions in small intestine, hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose.
protein enzymes
pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxy-pepsidase, amino-pepsidase, dipeptidase, enterokinase
secreted as pepsinogen, produced in gastric glands, functions in stomach, hydrolyzes specific peptide bonds
secreted as trypsinogen, produced in pancreas, functions in small intestine, hydrolyzes specific peptide bonds. Converts chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin
secreted as chymotrypsinogen, produced in pancreas, functions in small intestine, hydrolyzes specific peptide bonds
produced by pancreas, functions in small intestine, hydrolyzes terminal peptide bond at carboxyl end.
produced in intestinal glands, functions in small intestine, hydrolyzes terminal peptide bond at amino end
produced by intestinal glands, functions in small intestine, hydrolizes pairs of amino acids
produced in intestinal glands, functions in small intestine, converts trypsinogen to trypsin
lipid enzymes
bile (not an enzyme), lipase
not an enzyme. produced in liver, functions in small intestine, emulsifies fat
produced in pancreas, functions in small intestine, hydrolyzes lipids
enzymes produced by the pancreas
amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, lipase
enzymes produced by intestinal glands
maltase, sucrase, lactase, aminopeptidase, dipeptidase, enterokinase
enzymes produced by gastric glands
pepsin (secreted as pepsinogen)
enzymes produced by salivary glands
salivary amylase
digestive product of the liver
enzymes that function in the mouth
enzymes that function in the small intestine
amylase, maltase, sucrase, lactase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, dipeptidase, enterokinase, bile, lipase
enzymes that function in stomach
diploid precursers to sperm
primary spermatocyes
diploid precursers to sperm which are produced by differentiation from spermatogonia
secondary spermatocytes
haploid precursers to sperm which are produced via first meiotic division of primary spermatocytes
haploid precursers to sperm which are produced via second meiotic division of secondary spermatocytes
mature sperm, produced by alterations to spermatids
primary oocyte
female sex cells present in ovaries at birth
secondary oocyte
haploid sex cell in ovary resulting from first meiotic division of primary oocyte
meiosis II
occurs post-fertilization

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