This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Chapter 1: Elements of the Immune System and their Roles in Defense


undefined, object
copy deck
Schistosoma mansoni
Helminth worm causes schistosomiasis
Male worm: Thick and Bluish
Female Worm: White and Threadlike
Trypanosoma brucei
Protozoan that causes African sleeping sickness
Pneumocystis carinii
Fungus that causes opportunistic infections in patients with suppressed immune system due to drugs or disease.
Epidermophyton floccosum
Dermatophyte fungus that causes ringworm. Pear shaped spore-producing structures (macronidia) connected by filaments (hyphae)
Influenza virus
Orthomyxovirus causes influenza
Candida albicans
Normal inhabitant of the human body
Occasionally causes thrush and more seever systemic infections.
Staphylococcus Aureus
Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes human skin and is the common cause of pimples and biols
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
causes tuberculosis
Listeria monocytogenes
Gram-positive coccobacillus that can contaminate processed food, causing disease (listeriosis) in immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women
Salmonella enteritidis
Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is a common cause of food poisoning. Hair like flagella enable bacteria to move
Streptococcus pyogenes
Gram-positive bacterium that is the principal cause of tonsilities and scarlet fever, and can also cause ear infections.
Mechanisms of Innate Immunity
Rapid Response (hours)
Limited Number of Specificities
Does not lead to long-term immunity to that particular pathogen
Constant during response
Mechanisms of Adaptive Immunity
Slow Response (Days to Weeks)
Numerous highly selective specificities
Leads to condition of long-lived protection to that pathogen alone and no other
Improve during response
Vertebrates Only!
Small Lymphocyte
Production of antibodies (B Cells) or cytotoxic and herlp functions (T Cells)
Killing of antibody-coated parasites through release of granule contents
Plasma cell
Fully differentiated form of B cell that secretes antibodies
Natural Killer Cell
Kills cells infected with certain viruses
Mast Cell
Expulsion of parasites from body through release of granules containing histamine and other active agents
Dendritic cell
Activation of T cells and initiation of adaptive immune responses
Principle cell that cooperates with lymphocytes to initiate adaptive immune responses.
Circulating precursor cell to macrophages
Phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms
Phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms
Activation of T Cells and initiation of immune responses.
Types of Recognition Molecules for:
B Lymphocytes (B Cells)
T Lymphocytes (T Cells)
B Cells - Immunoglobulins
T Cells - T-cell receptors
B Cell Activation
Causes B-Cells to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which make antibodies.
Hematopoietic Stem Cells directly give rise to?
Common Lymphoid Progenitor
Myeloid Progenitor
Erythroid Progenitor`
Common Lymphoid Progenitor directly give rise to?
Natural Killer Cells (NK Cells)
Myeloid Progenitor cells directly give rise to?
Dendritic Cell
Mast Cell
Erythroid Progenitors directly give rise to?
Megakaryocytes --> Platelets
Erythroblasts --> Erythrocytes
Major Lymphoid Tissues
Bone Marrow
Lymph Nodes
Peyer's Patches
Some Minor Lymphoid Tissues
Mucosal surfaces of Respiratory
Urogenital Tracts
Primary or central lymphoid tissues description
Where lymphocytes develop and mature to the stage at which they are able to respond to a pathogen
Primary lymphoid tissues?
Bone Marrow
What organ has no connections to the lymphatic system
Helper T Cells
Secrete soluble proteins that activate other cvells of the immune system, including B cells and macrophages
Four Key elements of innate immunity
Molecules that non-covalently bind to surface macromolecules of pathogens
Moleculse that covalently bond to pathogen surfaces, forming ligands for phagocyte receptors
Phagocytic cells that engulf and kill pathogens
Cytotoxic cells that kill virus-infected cells
Th1 Cells
Th2 Cells
Th1 (MHC Class I Effector)- Activates macrophages and secretes cytokines
Th2 (MHC Class II Effector)- Help B cells make Antibodies

Deck Info