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Neurologic system


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all signs above neck; lesion affecting a cranial nerve would give signs and symptoms to the same side of head lesion is found.
All signs below neck; signs and symptoms would occur on the opposite side of the lesion.
pupillary response to less light.
Pupillary constriction. Oculomotor nerve releases acetylcholine which acts on receptors.
double vision
rhythmic, involuntary, unilateral or bilateral movement of the eyes.
Optic nerve swelling, caused by venous return from the retina because of increased intracranial pressure.
Cloudy area of the lens results from protein coagulation.
2 types-Open and closed angle.
Elevation if intraocular pressure.
Open Angle-painless, slow loss of peripheral vision.

Closed-Angle closes suddenly and unexpedtely. Acute pain, blurred vision, halos around objects.
Macular degeneration
Sever and irreversible loss of central vision due to destruction of macula.
HTN, SMOKING, CAUCASIAN, DIABETES. Peripheral vision good but central vision having black spot in middle of vision.
Otitis externa
infection/inflammation of ear canal. AKA swimmers ear.
pain upon moving pinna.
Otitis media
infection/inflammation of the middle ear.
Fever, constant pain.
Meniere's disease
Disorder of the inner-exact cause is unknown but is a disturbance of fluids in middle ear.
Dizziness, vertigo, sweating, tinnitus, unclear pattern.
Cerebral perfusion pressure
Pressure of blood going into the brain.
Too low- Hypovolemia, hypotension, ischemia.
Too high- HTN, aneurysms and cerebral edema.
Increased intracranial pressure
Pressure in the intracranial cavity.
Higher ICP less likely the CPP will be able to bring o2 to brain. Increased ICP= decreased CPP.
2 types-
Ischemic and Hemorrhagic
interruption of blood supply to any part of the brain, resulting in damaged brain tissue.
Ischemic CVA
Thrombotic-atherosclerosis risk increased with hypoperfusion or dehydration, polycythemia, thrombocytosis.
Subtype of thrombotic stoke. symptoms less than 24 hours. Clumps of platlets or small clots.
Embolic CVA
Ischemic subtype. Fragments that break from a thrombus outside/inside the brain.
atrial fibrillation.
Ischemic subtype. Small infarcts throughout brain tissue involving small arteries.
Hemorrhagic CVA
Bleeding into brain tissue.
Causes..HTN, weakened arterial walls, vascular malformations, coagulation disorders.
Disorder of speech. Altered ability to articulate sounds or changes in voice pitch.
Receptive and Expressive
Varying degrees of inability to comprehend, integrate, and express language.
Receptive aphasia
able to speak but unable to understand others or comprehend written material.
Expressive aphasia
inability or slowed/impaired ability to talk or write.
Left hemisphere sequela of stroke
motor problems on right side of body
cranial nerve problems on left side
problems with speech and labguage
problems with math or reasoning.
Right hemisphere sequela of stroke
motor problems on left side
cranial nerve problems on right side
cant perceive they have left side
inability to determine spatial position
Cerebellar CVA
Usually problems with coordination and balance.
Brain stem CVA
Problems with LOC, breathing, HR, BP, swallowing. Cranial nerve disturbances.
Alzheimer's disease
Familial-inherited, early or late onset.
Non-hereditary-late onset. most cases.

Genetic mutation improperly encodes a normal protein AMYLOID. Abnormal amyloid forms plaque in brain. Neurofibrillary tangle disrupts nr impulses in brain.
Parkinson's disease
Extrapyramidal system- nerve tracts from these cells dont follow the pyramidal tracts. Responsible for fine motor movements. Involve dysfunction of basal ganglia.
Lack of movement. Resting tremor.
Cog-wheel rigidity of forearm.
Basal ganglion gait
Parkinsonian gait...stooped posture, small steps, decreased arm swing.
Acethycholine and dopamine
Effects of Acetylcholine(cholinergic) are excitatory and dopamine are inhibitory.
Multiple sclerosis
Stimulated by virus- persons own t-cells attach myelin sheath in brain. Demyelinating lesions.
disorder of blood flow to brain.
stress-spasm of arteries-bloodflow reduced-platelets clump-serotonin released, vasoconstrictor-ischemia to brain.
NSAID and seritonin inhibitors.
General and partial
Sudden, explosive charge of neurons.
General-Grand mal patient is ALWAYS unconscious. Movement is tonic clonic.
Partial-begin locally and have varied level of unconsciousness.
Temporary axonal disruption affecting attention and memory
Diffuse axonal injury
varied severity, cerebral edema. involved coma of 6 hours or greater.
Coup and contrecoup
Coup-impact against immovable object.
Contrecoup-rebound, brain hits other side of skull.
Epidural (hematoma)-b/t dura and cranium. causes arterial bleeding.
Subdural- disruption of venous system, develops slowly.
Intracerebral- bleeding into the brain.
Bacterial and viral
Inflammation of meninges
Viral-AKA aseptic, milder symptoms.
Bacterial- caused by meningococcus and pneumococcus.
Bacterial meningitis
signs and symptoms
Edema of meninges around brain
Photophobia-pain in eyes when exposed to light, headache, irritablity, restlessness, NV
Edema of meninges around spine...neck stiffness, postive brudzinski's or kernig's-straightening the knee with hip an knee flexed produces pain in back.
released at the synapse to break down extra acetylcholine.
Myasthenia gravis
Thymic tumor. antibodies destroy the receptors for acetylcholine..
muscle weekness

ALS-always fatal disease that attacks the neurons.
Motor neuron diseases. Caused by genetic defect that normally codes for superoxide radicals cause damage to DNA and protein synthesis..causes altered glutamate....give drugs that block glutamate.

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