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AU Biology 210 Exam 2


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Three things that identify bacteria.
1. Cell walls primarily made of peptidoglycan.
2. Plasma membrane similar to eukaryotes.
3. Ribosomes and RNA polymerase that are distinct.
Three things that identify archaea
1. Cell walls made of polysaccharides.
2. Unique plasma membrane.
3. Ribosomes and RNA polymerase similar to eukaryotes.
The use of bacteria and archaea to degrate pollutants.
"extreme-lovers" bacteria and archaea that live in extreme conditions such as high-salt, high-temperature, low-temperature or high-pressure.
First organisms to perform oxygenic photosynthesis.
Sulfate reducers
Produce hydrogen-sulfide as a by-product of cellular respiration.
Produce methane as a by-product of cellular respiration.
Three ways bacteria exchange genetic information.
1. Conjugation - a copy of a plasmid moves through conjugation tube.
2. Transformation - incorported from the environment.
3. Transduction - virus (phage) carries genes from one cell to the other
lytic replication
Viral genome enters cell, generates new viral cells and then lyses the host cell.
lycogenic replication
Viral DNA is incorporated into host chromosome, it is replicated with cell replication and remains quiecent, upon stress switches to lysic replication. Hep and HIV are lycogenic
viruses are...
obligate intracellular parasites. genetic material with a protein coat or capsid. enveloped or non-enveloped. genome ranges from 3 to 343 (smallpox).
Protease Inhibitors
Part of compination therapy used to treat HIV. Prevents polypeptide sequences from being cut info functional proteins by protease.
Positive-sense, Negative-sense and Ambisense
In positive sense viruses the genome contains the same sequence as mRNA. In negative sense it is the complimentary. In ambisense there is portions of both.
Malaria Life Cycle Drawing

Novelties in Eukaryotes
1. Nuclear envelope around DNA.
2. Organelles
3. Chloroplasts and mitochondria
4. cytoskeleton of microtubules
5. linear chromosomes with histones
6. meiosis and mitosis
7. multicellularity
Three ways protists move
1. Crawling with pseudopodia.
2. Swimming via flagella.
3. Swimming via cillia.
Three ways protists eat
1. Swollow with pseudopodia.
2. Absorbtion of detritus or other organisms.
3. Photosynthesis.
Evidence for Endosymbiosis Theory for Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
1. About the same size as a bacteriium.
2. Replicate by fission.
3. Ribosomes resemble bacterial ribosomes and are poisoned by antibiotics such as streptomycin
4. They have their own circular chromosomes.
5. DNA evidence shows chloroplasts are related to cyanobacteria and mitochondria are related to alpha-proteobacteria.
Protist with 1 or 2 flaglella, autotrophic or heterotrophic. Most popular is Trypanosome Brucei which causes african sleeping sickness. Transmitted by tsetse fly, replicated asexually in human blood, able to switch surface glycoproteins by mitotic recombination.
Protists, important group is Ciliates which includes paramecium.
Protist in the Apicomplexa phylum. Causes malaria, evolved 10,000 years ago which correspondes to agriculural development, cities with greater density, human migration out of africa and evolution of mosquito vector.
Primes immune system to respond more quickly and with higher antibody titers on second exposure of the antigen
Attenuated Viral Vaccine
Active virus but does not cause the disease. Usually cultured on cells from another species, cells loose ability to grow rapidly in normal host. Smallpox (cow pox milk maids), polio, measles
Inactivated Viral Vaccine
Genes have been damaged by exposure to chemicals or irradiation. Hep A and Flu.
Only virus completely eliminated by vaccines. Distributed by WHO. 10-15 million cases in 1967, last recorded case in 1978. Virus doesn't mutate or change antigens. viral protein stimulates strong antibody response. only a human disease.
Polio Virus
Only affects humans, WHO is working on distributing vaccine and educating. can be created from scratch with just nucleotides.
National Center for Biotechnology Information. BLAST compares nucleotide sequence, helps with phylogenies.
Hepatitis C
Number 1 cause of liver transplatation in US. 1 in 70-100 have virus, transmitted in blood, called silet epidemic. 20-30% develop cirrhosis, 2-5% liver failure
RNA virus like HIV and Hep. Reverse Transcriptase causes very high mutation rate. 2 proteins in envelope N (9 types) and H (16 types).
Bird flu, birds have all types of proteins and are perfect resevior. Wild birds are unaffected and in chickens it's fatal. Humans never exposed, flu epidemics in past occur with exposure to new H antigen. Respiratory in humans, digestive in birds. 1916-1918 pandemic of H1N1 half million died in US 50 million world wide targeted 20-40 year olds.
Warning Signs for H5N1
1. virulence in humans has decreased.
2. 8 of 10 mutations present in 3. H5N1 that were in H1N1.
4. Virus has spread to wild birds.
5. Antigenic drift
Culture Independent Sequencing
Called direct sequencing in book, allows for bulk DNA sequencing without growing organism. you extract DNA, PCR it, sequence it, then compare it to BLAST.
Mats of cyanobacteria
Ecological Roles for Bacteria
Nitrogen Fixation, Decomposers, primary producers (cyanobacteria), human uses
Normal Flora
10 times more bacterial cells than human cells in body
1. outcompete pathogenic bacteria
2. provide vitamin K
3. digest soluble fiber
4. stimulate normal development of intestinal lining and immune system.
Clostridium Botulinum
tetanus, gang green, lockjaw
1. anaerobe
2. produces spores
3. produces neurotoxin that paralyses muscles
4. originates from ingesting toxin
Bacillus Thurogensis
BT, makes a protein that is toxic to larve of moths, low toxicity to humans degrades rapidly, BT protein gene is most common gene added to genetically modified food, decreases pesticides.
Used to treat livestock, bacteria developes resistance and moves through food chain to humans. Banned in Holland.
Antibiotic of last resort.

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