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Pharmacology exam


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Study of drugs & their actions on living organisms
Science of natural drugs & their physical,botanical, & chemical properties
Study of metabolism & action of drugs with the body
The study of the uses of drugs in the treatment of disease.
Medicinal uses for drugs
Therapeutic,diagnostic,curative,replacement, & preventative or prophylactic
Sources of drugs
plants,animals,minerals,synthetic, & genetically engineered
Six Rights
Right drug,right dose,right route,right time, right client,right documentation
Sympathetic Stimulation
Parasymphatetic stimulation
Flight - Slow heart rate, constriction of bronchioles and pupils
Narcotic Analgesic (Opiate)
Relieves pain; s/e: Nausea & vomiting, meiosis, coughing, orthostatic hypotension,confusion, respiratory depression; ex: morphine, codeine
Non narcotic analgesic
Relieves pain; s/e gastric irritation, dizziness, tinnitus, visual disturbances, Reye's Syndrome; ex: aspirin (salicylates) & tylenol (non salicylate
Prevents or reduces inflammation; s/e: hangover, drowsiness, lethargy; ex: NSAID, Ibuprofen
Provide sedation and/or manage insomnia; s/e: hangover,drowsiness,lethargy; ex: Benzodiazepines
to relieve anxiety or tension or to produce sleep; s/e: hangover,drowsiness,restlessness,weakness,depression,hallucination,seizure,gastric irritation
Agent that prevents or relieves convulsions; s/e: Muscular incoordination, dizziness, gastric irritation, wt loss, skin rash,gingival hyperplasi, alteration in behavior, incoordination,drowsiness,respiratory arrest, CHF, liver dysfunction,urinary retention,gastric distress,nausea,vomiting; ex: dylantin, Clonazepam, Carbamazepine
management of hyperactivity, agitation, and mania; s/e: Extrapyramidal symptoms(Spasms,stiffness of body muscle {dystonia}, restlessness or inability to sit still {akathesia}, excessive salivation and parkinson's like signs:tremor of hands,difficulties with moving/walking/balance and diffuculty swallowing). Tardive Dyskinesia-persistent,possibly irreversible facial movements like blinking or tongue thrustins, seizures, drowsiness,blurred vision,constipation,difficulty urinating,impaired sexual function,weight gain,diabetes,elevated lipids,high temp,low bp, blood count changes esp WBC; ex: Haldol, risperdal
used to treat depression; s/e: anticholinergic: dry mouth,blurred vision,dysuria,constipation, CNS: drowsiness,restlessness,insomnia,anxiety,nervousness,impaired sexual function,impaired temp control, GI: nausea anorexia,diarrhea,liver disease, Cardiovascular: lowering BP (orthostatic hypotension) High BP, EKG Changes; ex: Celexa, Wellbutrin, Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, MAO Inhibitors
Sedatives or hypnotics; s/e: drowsiness, fatigue,weakness,daytime sedation; ex: valium,ativan,ambien
Mood stabilizers
s/e: CNS: Lethargy,fatigue,tremor,vertigo,diziness,slurred speech,ataxia (unsteadiness on feet), GI: nausea,diarrhea,bloating,weight gain,loss of appetite, abdominal pain,pancreatitis,elevated liver enzymes,potentially fatal skin rash, Blood effects: Changes in blood cells, esp WBC and platelets; ex: Lamictal,topamax,neurontin,tegretol
s/e: Nervousness,insomnia,irratibility,loss of appetite,increased bp,increased heart rate & liver failure; ex: Adderall,Cylert,Ritalin,Dexedrine
S/e: constipation; ex: Amphoegel, MOM, Mylanta
Histamine antagonist (H2 Blockers)
block the action of histamine on stomach cells; s/e: Rash,dizziness,breast tenderness,diarrhea,HA,confusion,constipation,N/V; ex" cimetidine,ranitidine (Zantac)
Used to relieve gas;no known side effects; ex: Charcoal, simethicone
used to cause vomiting;Syrup of Ipecac
Used to prevent or treat vomiting; s/e: sedating; ex: Tigan,Dramamine,Reglan, Phenergan
Relieves cramps or spasms of the stomach; s/e: Blurred vision,dry mouth, and tachycardia; ex: Dicyclomine, Propantheline
Gastric Acid Pump Inhibitor
reduce the production of stomach acid; s/e: tingling of the fingers or toes,difficulty breathing ,
difficulty swallowing, swelling of the face or lips,
rapid heartbeat,slow heartbeat,headache,diarrhea ,
dizziness,drowsiness ,nausea
depression,skin rash,vomiting; ex: Prilosez, Prevacid,Acidphex,Protonix
s/e: constipation,dry mouth,drowsiness; ex: Lomotil,pepto-bismol,Kaopectate
Used to relieve constipation; s/e: dependency; dehydration,Hypermagnesemia in pt with inpaired renal function; ex: Metamucil, Castor Olil, MOM
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output; s/e: decreases heart rate; ex: Digitalis,Digoxin,Digitoxin
Suppression of cardiac arrhythmias; s/e: Bradycardia, dizzinness,headache,arrhythmia; ex: Quinidine,Procanamide, Verapamil,Propranolol, Lidocaine
any agent that causes a narrowing of an opening of a blood vessel; s/e: anxiety, arrhythmias, central nervous system depression, dizziness, hallucinations, headache, insomnia, palpitations, psychological disturbances, respiratory difficulty, seizures, tachycardia, urinary retention, vomiting; ex: Leverteeronol,Metaramino,Ephedrine,Phenylephrine
cause dilation of the blood vessels; s/e: congestive heart failure,EKG changes, diarrhea, headache, nausea, orthostatic hypotension, palpitations, pleural or cardiac effusions, itching, rash, tachycardia, vomiting ; ex: Nitrates,HCL
Diuretics,Beta Blocker, Calcium Channel Blockers, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
Diuretics are medications that are used when there is too much fluid in the body, as in congestive heart failure, hypertension, or other conditions which cause retention of water in the tissues causing edema; s/e: hypokalemia, hyperuricemia, hyperglycemia, aplastic anemia, blood dyscrasias, volume depletion, dehydration ; ex: Furosemide
Beta Blocker
block epinephrine's effect on various beta receptors in the body; s/e: Bradycardia,hypotension,peripheral edema,dizziness,fatigue,confusion,depression,dyspnea,impotence,rash; ex: Propranolo,Atenolol,Metoprolol
Calcium Channel Blocker
they close off the channels in the cell membrane that allow calcium to return to the cell after contraction. They relax the blood vessels of the heart, allowing increased blood flow and relieving angina pain. They also slow the rate at which electrical impulses are conducted, so the heart rate is slowed; s/e: Palpitation,bradyycardia,tachycardia,pulmonary edema/heart failure (diff. breathing,coughing,wheezing),peripheral edema,flushing,nausea & vomiting,constipation,rash,dizziness,HA,fatigue; Ex: Diltiazem,Nifedipine,Verapamil
ACE Inhibitor
competitively block the angiotensin I converting enzyme necessary for conversion to angiotensin II, decreasing vascular tone, lowering blood pressure, blocking release of aldosterone, increasing plasma renin activity; s/e: Dizziness,weakness,orthostatic hypotension,tachycardia,chestpain,rash,neutopenia,agranulocytosis,HA,proteinuria,deterioration in renal function,hyperkalemial ex: Captopril,Enalapril,Lisinopril
Iron Replacement
Replaces iron; s/e: Teeth staining in oral preparation,Z Track injection for parenteral, Gastric irritatio, nausea diarrhea, stool, discoloration,Iron toxicity; ex: Ferrous Sulfate
Blood thickener
Blood thinner; s/e: Hemmorrhage and bleeding; Monitoring of PTT & PT; Ex: Heparin, Warfarin
S/e: Theophyline toxicity; ex: albuterol
Respiratory stimulant
Nalaxone, Doxapram
A compound that prevents or controls coughs; s/e: Respirtory depression, addiction
Tending to facilitate expectoration or to promote discharges of mucus.s/e: nausea, headache, and fatigue; Ex: guiafenesin(Robitussin)
s/e: Hypertension,rebound congestion; ex: Ephedrine, Phenylephrine
S/e: sedating; ex: Astemizole,Dipenhydramine
used to decrease the immune response; s/e: Inhalation has lesser systemic side effects.Oral thrush; Ex: Beclamethasone,Dexamethasone
mast cell stabilizer.
prevent the mast cells from releasing histamine, which reduces some of the symptoms of allergic rhinitis;Used for prophylaxis not as treatment; ex: Cromolyn Sodium
Bladder Active Drugs
relaxes muscle spasms of the bladder. It is used to relieve certain bladder and urinary conditions.; s/e: Stomach pain, gas, cramping or constipation,drowsiness or blurred vision,dry mouth,restlessness, vivid dreams or hallucinations,may reduce sweating, ex: Neostigmine,methylsulfate,Bethanocol,Oxybutinin
Urinary Antiseptic or Antibiotis
S/E: Rash pruritus,photosensitivity,nausea,vomiting,diarrhea; ex: Sulfonamides,Cephalosporin,Erytromycins
Antineoplastic Agent
Prevents the replication of neiplastic cells
Alkylating Agents
A substance which contains an alkyl (derived from an alkane) radical, with which it can replace a hydrogen atom with itself in an organic compound. As a result, it can act on DNA and interfere with replication, making it useful for destroying cells such as cancer cells; s/e: Bone marrow depression/suppression, anemia,leukopenia,vomiting,thrombocytopenia,and pancytopenia;ex: Myleran,Leukeran,Platinol,Cytoxan
a normal metabolic process; s/e: Bone marrow depression/suppression, anemia,leukopenia,vomiting,thrombocytopenia,and pancytopenia; ex: Cytosar,Hydrea,5-FU,Xeloda
Mitotic inhibitors
inhibits cell growth by stopping cell division: s/e: Depends upon specific drug; ex: Taxol, Velban,Oncovin
s/e: drowsiness,muscle cramps,edema or swelling,weakness,hypernatremia,rash,N/V,epigastric discomfort,hypoglycemia;ex: Premarin,Teslac,Megace,Nolvadex
Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
s/e: NA and fluid retention,CHF,potassium loss,HTN,muscle weakness,osteoporosis,peptic ulcer,poor wound healing,nausea,vomiting,abdominal discomfort,diarrhea,
Disease modifying antirhematic drugs
s/e: ocular toxicity, ex: Aurolate, Immunosuppressant
Skeletal Muscle relaxant
s/e: Drowsiness,dizziness, & blurred vision. ex: Lioresal,flexeril,robaxin
Muscle Stimulant
s/e: weakness,muscle tension & cramps,nausea,diarrhea,respiratory paralysis
3 types of medications
Controlled substance,prescription drugs, OTC

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