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Security Plus


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MAC (Mandatory Access Control)
Access to an object is restricted based on the sensitivity of the object (defined by the label that is assigned), and granted through authorization (Clearance) to access that level of data.
DAC (Discretionary Access Control)
Permits the owner of an object (such as a process, file, or folder) to manage access control at their own discretion.
RBAC (Role Based Access Control)
A type of control wherein the levels of security closely follow the structure of an organization. The role the person plays in the organization (accountant, salesman, and so on) corresponds to the level of security access they have to data.
Kerberos Authentication
is a network authentication protocol that provides strong authentication for client/server applications by using symmetric key cryptography. It is designed to provide a single sign on to a heterogeneous environment. It allows mutual authentication and encrypted communication between users and services; therefore, it can be used over public communication mediums.
A protocol that can be used when a remote client needs to authenticate itself to a network server or when two routers need to authenticate themselves to each other to begin a point to point protocol (PPP) session. Challenge include the session ID and a random string of data to the remote client. The remote client uses a Message Digest function (MD5) has to return: the username, and encrypted challenge, session ID, and password.
A digital representation of information that identifies you and is issued by Cas, which are often a trusted third party (TTP).
Username and Password authentication
Are common methods used to validate that people are who they say they are.
A device that can be issued to a user for use in the authentication process. Are often small handheld devices, with or without keypads. They can range in size from a credit card to a small pocket calculator.
MultiFactor Authentication
Authentication that involves multiple factors to grant access to an authorized user. There are three basic factor types: Type 1 is something you know, such as a password; type 2 is something you have , such as a smart card; Type 3 is something you are , such as a fingerprint.
Mutual Authentication
A situation in which both the server and client must authenticate with one another.
Biometric authentication
Automated method of identifying a person based on a physical characteristic, such as a thumbprint or the retina of their eye.
To better protect your network devices and hosts, you should do the following:
Disable unnecessary programs and processes, Disable Unnecessary Services, Disable Unnecessary protocols, Verify test and install all vendor patches, Use vulnerabilty scanners to identify potential security weaknesses, Disable promiscous mode.
When you secure files systems You should configure files system persmission according what rule?
The Rule of least privilege
In addition to removing all unnecessary components and applying security updates, some additional steps to secure operating systems include the following:
Set complex password for all users account and change them frequently, Set account lockout policies, Remove or disable all unnecessary modems, Enable Monitoring, logging ,auditing, and detection, Maintain backups and disk images.
DOS attack
is any attack that consumes or disables resources in an attempt to hinder or disrupt some operation or function. Examples Ping of Death, Teardrop, Land, ICMP flood, UDP Flood, Smurf, Fraggle.
Ddos attack
are DOS attacks conducted simultaneously from multiple computers. Often conducted using other compromised computers running Zombie software, which is any software under the remote command ofa an attacker. Example Trinoo and Tribe Flood Network
Back Door attack
is a program or account that allows security measures to be circumvented. Example a trojan horse program might be used.
Spoofing attack
Is pretending to be someone else by impersonating, masquerading or mimicking that person. Example IP address_______, ARP Cache_______, RIP______, Web page________.
Man in the Middle
When an attacker successfully inserts an intermediary system between two communicating hosts. Allows the attacker to listen to and possibly modify communications passing between the two systems. Examples SMBRelay tool, SSHmitm, Webmitm.
Replay attack
involve listening to and repeating data passed on the network. An attacker tries to capture packets containing passwords or digital signatures as they pass between two hosts on a network using a protocol analyzer The attacker then filters the data and extracts the portion of the packet that contains the password encryption key, or digital signature. Later the attacker resends that information in an attempt to gain access to a secured resource.
TCP/IP Hijacking
An attack in which the attacker gains access to a host in the network and logically disconnects it from the network. The attacker then inserts another machine with the same IP address onto the network.
Weak Key Attack
An attack that looks for cipher holes.
Mathmatical Attack/Brute Force Attack
Attacks that use mathematical algorithms to break encryption keys, passwords, or other logical security measures with brute force; trying every combination available.
Social Engineering
An attack that uses others by deceiving them. For example, you could call a busy receptionist and tell her that you’re a company salesman who is stranded at a customer’s site. You’re trying to do a demo, but you can’t get your password to work. Can she tell you her password just so you can get the demo going and not lose the account?
Birthday Attack
A probability method of finding similar keys in MD5.
Password Guessing
Attempting to enter a password by guessing its value.
Dictionary Attack
An attack that uses words from a database (dictionary) to test against passwords until a match is found.
Software Exploitation
An attack launched against applications and higher-level services.
A program intended to damage a computer system. Sophisticated viruses are encrypted and hide in a computer and may not appear until the user performs a certain action or until a certain date
Trojan Horses
Any application that masquerades as one thing in order to get past scrutiny and then does something malicious. One of the major differences between Trojan horses and viruses is that Trojan horses tend not to replicate themselves.
Logic Bombs
Any code hidden within an application that causes something unexpected to happen based on some criteria being met. For example, a programmer could create a program that always makes sure his name appears on the payroll roster; if it doesn’t, then key files begin to be erased.
What actions can you take to mitigate vulnerability and risk from Viruses, Trojan horses, Logic Bombs and Worms?
Antivirus software...and
How can you reduce the risks of social engineering?
shred documents to prevent dumpster diving, user awareness to prevent shoulder surfing, and....
What is the significance of auditing, logging, and system scanning?
To exam systems and/or business processes to ensure that they've been properly designed and are being properly used.
The standard that provides for bandwidths of up to 54Mbps in the 5GHz frequency spectrum.
The standard that provides for bandwidths of up to 11Mbps in the 2.4GHz frequency spectrum. This standard is also called WiFi or 802.11 high rate.
The standard that provides for bandwidths of 20Mbps+ in the 2.4GHzfrequency spectrum. The 802.11g standard is currently undergoing debate and discussion regarding technical standards.
VPN (virtual private network)
System that uses the public Internet as a backbone for a private interconnection (network) between locations.
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dialin users service)
A mechanism that allows authentication of dial-in and other network connections.
TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System)
An authentication system that allows credentials to be accepted from multiple methods, including Kerberos. The TACACS client/server process occurs in the same manner as the RADIUS process.
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)
A tunneling protocol that adds functionality to PPP. This protocol was created by Microsoft and Cisco and is often used with virtual private networks (VPNs).
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
An extension to PPP that is used in VPNs. An alternative to PPTP is L2TP.
SSH (Secure Shell)
A protocol and software package originally developed at the Helsinki University of Technology and is a secure, low-level Transport protocol. SSH allows users to log on to a remote computer over the network, execute commands on it, and move files from one computer to another while providing strong authentication and secure communications over unsecured channels.
IPSEC (Internet Protocol Security)
A set of protocols that enable encryption, authentication, and integrity over IP. IPSec is commonly used with virtual private networks (VPNs) and operates at Layer 3.
What are the vulnerabilites of 802.11x
look answer up...
What are the vulnerabilites of VPN?
Look answer up
What are the vulnerabilites of RADIUS?
Passwords exchnaaged between the radisu client and radius server are encrypted, but passwords exchanged between the PC client and the radius client are not necessarily encrypted....if using PAP authentication for example....and????
What are the vulnerabilites of TACACS?
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What are the vulnerabilites of L2TP?
Look up answer
What are the vulnerabilites of PPTP?
Look up answer
What are the vulnerabilites of SSH?
What are the vulnerabilites of IPSEC?
S/MIME (Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail extensions)
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy)
Provides confidentiality and authentication by using the IDEA cipher fro encryption and the RSS Asymmetric system for digital signatures and secure key distribution. Instead of a central certificate authority. Uses a trust model which is adeally suited to smaller groups for validation of user identity.
What are S/MIME (Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail extensions) Vulnerabilites?
What are PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) Vulnerabilities
Unwanted, unsolicited e-mail sent in bulk.
Typically an e-mail message warning of something that isn’t true, such as the outbreak of a new virus. The hoax can send users into a panic and cause more harm than the virus could.
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
A protocol that secures messages by operating between the Application layer (HTTP) and the Transport layer.
TLS (Transport Layer Security)
A protocol whose purpose is to verify that secure communications between a server and a client remain secure. Defined in RFC 2246.
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
The protocol used for communication between a web server and a web browser.
HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer)
A combination of HTTP with Secure Socket Layer (SSL) to make for a secure connection. It uses port 443 by default.
Instant Messaging
Immediate communication that can be sent back and forth between users who are currently logged on. From a security standpoint, there are risks associated with giving out information via IM that can be used in social engineering attacks; in addition, attachments sent can contain viruses.
What are some IM vulnerabilites, concerning packet sniffing, and privacy?
Java Script
A programming language that allows access to system resources of the system running the script. These scripts can interface with all aspects of an operating system just like programming languages, such as the C language.
A technology implemented by Microsoft that allows customized controls, icons, and other features to increase the usability of web-enabled systems.
Buffer Overflows Attack
A type of DoS attack that occurs when more data is put into a buffer than it can hold, thereby overflowing it (as the name implies)
A plain-text file stored on your machine that contains information about you (and your preferences) for use by a database server.
Signed Applets
An applet that doesn’t run in the Java sandbox and has higher system access capabilities. Signed applets aren’t usually downloaded from the Internet, but are provided by inhouse or custom programming efforts.
CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
An older form of scripting that was used extensively in early web systems.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) Relay
A protocol for sending e-mail between SMTP servers.
What are Java script Vulnerabilites?
What are ActiveX Vulnerabilites?
What are Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilites?
What are Cookie Vulnerabilites?
What are Signed Applets Vulnerabilites?
What are CGI Vulnerabilites?
What are SMTP Vulnerabilites?
What are directory Security Concepts as it relates to SSL and TLS?
LDAP (Lighweight Directory Access Protocol)
set of protocols derived from X.500 that operates at port 389.
S/FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
A TCP/IP protocol and software that permit the transferring of files between computer systems. Because FTP has been implemented on numerous types of computer systems, files can be transferred between disparate computer systems (for example, a personal computer and a minicomputer). See also Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).
Blind FTP (File Transfer Protocol ) Anonymous
File Sharing
What are ftp vulnerabilites?
What are 8.3 naming conventions?
What are packet sniffing vulnerabiliites?
Packet Sniffing
WTLS (Wireless Transport Layer Security)
The security layer of the Wireless Applications Protocol (WAP). WTLS provides authentication, encryption, and data integrity for wireless devices.
WEP (Wired Equvalent Privacy)
A security protocol for 802.11b (wireless) networks that attempts to establish the same security for them as would be present in a wired network.
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
Provides a suite of protocols used for securing communications in layers 3 through 7. The communications model can be compared to the seven-layer OSI model.
Site Surveys
Listening in on an existing wireless network using commercially available technologies
A combination of hardware and software that protects a network from attack by hackers who could gain access through public networks, including the Internet.
A device that connects two or more networks and allows packets to be transmitted and received between them. A router determines the best path for data packets from source to destination.
Are the marriage of hub an bridge technology. They resemble hubs in appearance, having multiple RJ45 connectors for connectin network systems. Instead of being a dumb amplifier like a hub, it functions as though it has a little miniature bridge built into each port. It will keep track of the MAC addresses attached to each of its ports and route traffic destined for a certain address only to the port to which it is attached.
Wireless (WLAN)
is a transmission system that is designed to be location independent allowing network access using radio waves rather than a cable infrastructure.
A communications device that converts digital computer signals into analog tones for transmission over the PSTN and converts them back to digital upon reception. The word “modem” is an acronym for “modulator/demodulator.”
RAS (Remote Access Server)
A computer that has one or more modems installed to enable remote connections to the network.
Telecom/PBX (private Branch Exchange)
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IDS (Intrusion Detection System)
Tools that identify and respond to attacks using defined rules or logic. IDS can be network-based or host-based.
Network Monitoring/Diagnostics
software packages are available for most network operating systems that will help you automate the management of your network. these package track key paramteres of your network server and client operating systems.
A computer that isn’t a server but is on a network. Generally, a workstation is used to do work, whereas a server is used to store data or perform a network function.
A computer that provides resources to the clients on the network.
Mobile Devices
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Coaxial Cable
One type of cable used in network wiring. Typical cable of this type include RG-58 and RG-62. The 10base2 system of ethernet networking uses this cable.
Shield Twisted Pair
A type of wiring that includes a pair of conductors inside a metal or foil shield. This type of medium can support faster speeds than non-shielded wiring.
Fiber Optic Cable
A network media cable made of a glass core enclosed within a glass tube and covered by an insulating plastic cover.
Removable Media
CD-R (recordable Compact Disk)
Hard Drives
Security Zones
Security zones help organizations classify, prioritize, and focus on security issues based on the services that are required in each zone.
DMZ (Demilitarized Zone)
A method of placing web and other servers that serve the general public outside the firewall and, therefore, isolating them from internal network access.
Web (or similar) services set up in a private network to be accessed internally only.
Web (or similar) services set up in a private network to be accessed internally and by select external entities, such as vendors and suppliers.
VLANs (Virtual local area network)
LAN that allows users on different switch ports to participate in their own network separate from, but still connected to, the other stations on the same or connected switch.
NAT (Network Address Translation)
A server that acts as a go-between for clients accessing the Internet. All communications look as if they originated from a proxy server because the IP address of the user making a request is hidden. Also known as Network Address Translation (NAT).
The act of sending data across a public network by encapsulating it into other packets.
Network Based IDS
An approach to IDS that attaches the system to a point in the network where it can monitor and report on all network traffic.
intrusion detection system (IDS)
Tools that identify and respond to attacks using defined rules or logic. IDS can be network-based or host-based.
Active Detection
Passive Detection
Host Based IDS
An intrusion detection system that is host-based. The alternative is network-based.
Honey Pots
A bogus system set up to attract and slow down a hacker.
Incident Response
How an organization responds to an incident.
OS Hardening (Operating system)
The process of applying all security patches and fixes to an operating system to make it as secure as possible.
NOS (Network Operating system) Hardening
File System
Updates (hotfixes, Service Packs, patches)
Network Hardening
Updates (firmware)
Enabling and disabling services and protocols
Access Control Lists (ACL)
List of rights that an object has to resources in the network.
Application Hardening
Web Servers
A server that holds and delivers web pages and other web content using the HTTP protocol. See also Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
Email Servers
FTP (File Transfer
DNS (Domain Name Service)Servers
Any server that performs DNS host name–to–IP address resolution. See also Domain Name Service (DNS), Internet Protocol (IP).
NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) Servers
File/Print Servers
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Servers
A protocol used on a TCP/IP network to send client configuration data, including TCP/IP address, default gateway, subnet mask, and DNS configuration, to clients. See also default gateway, Domain Name Service (DNS), subnet mask, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).
Data Repositories
Directory Services
The process of transforming characters into other characters that represent (but are not) the originals. Traditionally, the results are smaller and more secure than the original.
Symmetric Keys
The keys used when the same key encrypts and decrypts data.
Asymmetric Encryption
Encryption in which two keys must be used (not one). One key is used to encrypt data, and the other is needed to decrypt the data. This is the opposite of symmetric encryption, where a single key serves both purposes.
The act of ensuring that data remains private and no one sees it except for those expected to see it.
Data Integrity
A level of confidence that data won’t be jeopardized and will be kept secret.
Digital Signatures
An electronic signature whose sole purpose is to authenticate the sender.
The means of verifying that someone is who they say they are.
The ability (by whatever means) to verify that data was seen by an intended party. It makes sure they received the data and can’t repudiate (dispute) that it arrived.
Access Control
The means of giving or restricting user access to network resources. This is usually accomplished through the use of an ACL (Access Control List).
A digital entity that establishes who you are and is often used with e-commerce. It contains your name and other identifying data.
Certificate policies
Policies governing the use of certificates.
Certificate Practice Statement (CPS)
The principles and procedures employed in the issuing and managing of certificates.
Trust Models
What are some of the the cryptographic standards and protocols? What is the difference between them?
Centralized key management
Decentralized key management
Hardware vs software
Private Key protection
Code Escrow
The storage and conditions for release of source code provided by a vendor, partner, or other party.
Status Checking
key usage
multiple key pairs
Physical Access Control
Control access measures used to restrict physical access to the server(s)
Physical Barriers
An object, such as a locked door, used to restrict physical access to network components.
Wireless Cells
Fire Suppression
The ability to stop a fire and prevent it from spreading.
A copy of data made to removable media.
Offsite Storage
Storing data offsite, usually in a secure location.
Secure Recovery
Alternate Sites
Disaster Recovery Plan
The procedure by which data is recovered after a disaster.
High Availabilty
Fault tolerance
The ability to withstand a fault (failure) without losing data.
Security Policy
Rules set in place by a company to ensure the security of a network. These may include how often a password must be changed or how many characters a password should be.
Acceptable use policy
Agreed-upon principles set forth by a company to govern how the employees of that company may use resources such as computers and Internet access.
Due Care
Privacy Policy
Separation of Duties
A set of policies designed to reduce the risk of fraud and prevent other losses in an organization.
Need to Know
A method of information dissemination based on passing information only to those who need to know it.
Password Policy
A policy that describes how passwords should be managed.
SLA (service level agreements)
An agreement that specifies performance requirements for a vendor. This agreement may use MTBF and MTTR as performance measures in the SLA.
Human Resources Policy
Termination (adding & revoking password, priviliges)
Hiring (adding & revoking password, privilges)
Code of Ethics
Incident Response Plan
A policy that defines how an organization will respond to an incident.
The person who is using a computer or network
Role Management
Single Signon
Allows a user to present a single set of logon credentials typically to an authentication server, which then transparently logs the user on to all other enterprise systems and applications for which that user is authorized.
The act of tracking resource usage by users.
DAC (Descretionary Access Control)
A means of restricting access to objects based on the identity of subjects and/or groups to which they belong.
Chain of Custody
The log of the history of evidence that has been collected.
Preservation of Evidence
The process of controlling access to evidence, often by placing it in a controlled-access area with a single custodian responsible for all access.
Collection of Evidence
The means and orderly fashion by which evidence is collected, identified, and marked.
Asset identification
Risk Assessment
Threat identification
Any natural or man-made circumstance or event that could have an adverse or undersirable impact, whether minor or major, on an organizational asset
The absense or weakness of a safeguard in an asset, which makes a threat potentially more harmful or costly, more likely to occur or likely to occur more frequently
User Awareness
Online Resources
Standards and Guidelines
Systems Architecture
Change Documentation

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