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Anatomy and Physiology chapter 2 test 1


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materials that exist within our universe. Things that have an existance and take up space. Made up of elements
Very basic and pure substance/simple
What are Atoms and tell me about them
the smallest functional unit of an element. Comprised of subatomic particles. Has protons neutrons and electrons that work together in a system. The things that define an atom are the AMOUNT of protons neutrons and electrons
Protons and neutrons are located in the _______.
Atomic neucleus
Where are electrons found?
ouside the atomic neucleus
Represents electrons, neutrons, or electrons predictable
Atomic Number: and what it does and why
Number of protons within the nucleus of an atom. Also indicates the number of electrons because each atom is said to be electronically balanced.
Atomic Mass
Number of protons plus the number of neutrons.
How do you get the number of neutrons?
By subtracting the number of protons from the atomic mass
atoms that have the same number of protons, but have different numbers of neutrons or same atomic number and different atomic mass
Very important to humans. Has six protons and six electrons but different structures of carbon have different atomic mass
Radio Isotope
element or isotope that gives off energy
Molecular Formula
the formular/composition of a molecule

Does NOT indicate structure
Molecular formula for glucose?
C6 H12 O6
Structural Formula
shows how atoms and molecules connect to for the molecular formula
"directions on what's in there"
Covalent Bonding
chemical bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
Ionic Bonding
Chemical bond resulting from the transfer of electrons
Explain how an electron distribution works
First look at the number of protons. Once you know how many protons there are, you know how many electrons there are. Distribute the electrons to the several energy levels.
What is the order (in #s) for the energy levels in an electron distribution?
2 -> 8 -> 18 -> 32
Non-Reacting Elements
Do not typically form chemical bonds under the earth's atmosphere due to having 8 electrons in their last energy level or having 2 electrons in their ONLY energy level.
Name the major non-reacting elements, their atomic number, and give their nick-name
Helium - 2
Neon - 10
Argon - 18
Krypton - 36
Xenon - 54
Radon - 86
AKA: "Noble Gases"
The number of electrons the element requires to become more stable. To become more stable, it must have 8 electrons in its outer layer. The number of electrons needed to complete this 8 is known as the valence
The valence of hydrogen is ___
The valence of oxygen is ____
The valence of nitrogen is ____
The valence of carbon is ____
Tell me how an ionic bond would happen.
Step 1: Two atoms with a mutual need for electrons transfer the elctrons to try to become more stable and have 8 electrons in its outer shell.
Step 2: The transfer occurs
Step 3: The positively charged cations and negatively charged anions come together and you get an ionic bond.
charged atom
positively charged ion

ex: Na+
Negatively chargerd ion

ex: Cl-
Water is held together by ____ covalent bonding.
Polar covalent bonding
(water) having opposite charges
Non-Polar covalent bonding
(fats oils, and lipids) equal sharing of electrons where both sides are equal (+ to +) or (- to -)
WHat happens in covalent bonding if one atoms hasmore protons than another?
that side which is stronger will spend more time with the electrons
What happens when electrons spend more time with a certain atom?
the atom begins to become a little more negative
WHat happens when electrons spend more time on the opposite side of an atom
It becomes more positive
anything that has a positive and negative end
Suffix: -ity
property of having
Hydrogen Bond
holds neighboring water molecules together under the right remperatures and pressures. Heat breaks the hydrogen bond in water molecules and causes it to evaporate. Each hydrogen bond can hold a certain amount of heat before it breaks
Name the properties of water
specific heat
heat of vaporization
What is polarity?
property of being polar (having positive and negative)
name two kinds of polarity (in water) and tell their functions
hydrophillic - property of water attracting something
hydrophobic - property of water not attracting something
water sticking to water.(surface tension - measure of cohesion)
water sticking to some other surface. (capillary action)
Specific Heat
the ability of water to hold heat
Heat of vaporization
amount of energy needed to convert liquid water into vapors
Tell me about acids and bases
Acids - something that RELEASES hydrogen ions
Bases - something that ACCEPTS hydrogen ions and contains hydroxl (OH-) ions
strong acid/weak acid
strong acid - high number of hydrogen ions released
weak acid - low number of hydrogen ions released
strong base/weak base
strong base - accepts greater number of hydrogen ions
weak base - accepts less number of hydrogen ions
What does a hydroxl ion look like?
OH- is called a _____________
Hydroxl ion
H+ is a ______________
Hydrogen ion
What do the letters in PH stand for?
Population of Hydrogen ions
what does the PH scale run from and what is the midpoint?
0-14 and 7.000 is the midpoint
What happens when you get closer to 0 on the ph scale?
the acidity increases
What happens when you get closer to 14 on the ph scale?
The alkalinity increases
what kind of acid resides in the 1.5-2.0 zone
stomach acid
What is something with a ph of 7.000?
Neither an acid nor a base....water
PH of human blood?
under optimal conditions 7.4
It is slightly alkaline
Acceptable range is 7.35-7.45
condition of having too much acid in your blood
Condition of having too much alkaline (bases) in your bood.
difference between respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis
acidosis - too much carbon dioxide in the blook which cannot be removed
alkalosis - low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood
Difference between metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis
Acidosis - too much acids in the blood
Alkalosis - too little carbon dioxide plasma concentration
(carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) provides us with the bulk of our energy each day.
Provides photosynthesis
Helps with cellular respiration
what is a monosaccaride?
single sugar - smallest and simplest of sugars
What is the template for a monosaccharide?
C1 H2 O1
there will usually be twice as many hydrogen atoms and an equal amount of oxygen atoms as carbon.
What is a pentose and name the pentoses.
"free carbon sugar" C5 H10 O5
Ribose and Deoxyribose are pentoses
What is a hexose and name the hexoses
"six carbon atom sugar" C6 H12 O6
glucose, fructose, galactose
(C6 H12 O6) primary source of energy. Brain cells require a continual supply of glucose/dextrose. Primarily produced by plants
(fruit sugar) goes first to the liver where it is converted into glucose
(milk) goes into the liver to be converted into glucose
important to RNA
important to DNA
Name all the monosaccharides
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Ribose, and Deoxyribose
Class of sugar that has two monosaccharide sugar molecules joined together
Name the disaccharides and what they are
Sucrose - glucose + fructose (sugar cane)
Lactose - glucose + galactose (milk sugar)
Maltose - glucose + glucose (grain sugar)
Dehydration Synthesis
is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties react and become covalently bonded to one another by the concurrent loss of a small molecule, usually water
A chemical reaction that uses water to break down a compound.
"workers of cells" which put things together and takes them apart within our cells
Diff between a deoxyribose and a ribose
a Deoxyribose molecule has one less oxygen than a ribose molecule
Complex carbohydrates. Many monosaccharides connected togeher using dehydration synthesis. contains energy
Name the main polysaccharides and their function
Starch - "stoarage form of glucose in plants"
Glycogen - "storage form of glucose in animals"
Cellulose - Made by plants as a building material
Glycoproteins - found on the surface of red blood cells. important to blood types
Need carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Group of chemicals, usually fats, that do not dissolve in water.
Neutral fats
body fats that arent charged and wont dissolve in water
Fatty acids and glycerol
molecules that put together to make a chain of lipids
Name the three glycerides
one fatty acid connected to one glycerol molecule
two fatty acids connected to one glycerol molecule through covalnet bonds
Three fatty acids connected to one glycerol molecule. Each molecule of body fat is made up of triglycerides
referring to blood
In nature there are some ___ different kinds of fatty acids
Saturated fatty acids
fatty acids that are loaded or full. Carries the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Tends to come from animal sources
Hydrocarbons are ___________?
fuel molecules
what does an acide group look like?
one carbon that has a double bond with oxygen and a single bond with OH
when a fatty acid is not loaded or full. Has room for hydrogen atoms
Mono Unsaturated
one double bond in the "fatty section of the unsaturated fatty acid
many double bonds in the fatty section of the unsaturated fatty acid
Tras fatty acid
undergoes a change (trans)

what is this?
saturated fatty acid
lipids that contain phophorus and is important to the maup of cell membranes
leading member of the steroid family that are strictly found in animals
what is a hexagon shape thingy?
a ring of carbon atoms
WHat is a hexgon thingy with a letter O in one of its corners known as?
3 six ring carbon rings connected to one five ring carbon. Made from cholesterol. Powerful hormones
chemical regulator of biological function
Name the hormones
Estrogen, Progesterone, testosterone, cortisol
A steroidal hormone produced in both males and females that has a variety of functions. In women, it is released during menstruation to form a hospitable environment for embryo fertilization and implantation in the womb.
powerful steroid made from cholesterol important for support of pregnancy
(anabolic) important to make reproductive functions. Produced by males and females
hormone that helps the body deal with stress (physical)
Name the lipid soluable vitamins
Lipids connected to a protein using a covalent bond. Helps transport materials in the blood
Name the two kinds of lipoproteins and their functions
HDL - high density lipoprotein. better to have more because it carries cholesterol to places to be eliminated "healthy H"
LDL - low density lipoprotein. want low quantities "L=lowsy" helps in the retention of cholesterol
Cholesterol lowering medication. Lowers levels of LDL
Lip. Fatty like substance found in the nervous system. Very important in conductiveness in nerve cells
A family of powerful, hormone-like compounds produced in the body from essential fatty acids
Name two kinds of Eicosanoids and their functions
Prostaglandins - important to perception of pain
leukotreine - involved with the immune system and white blood cells

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