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-An aquired disorder of lang. processing secondary to brain disease or injury.
- Excludes developmental, congenital, motor speech or artic. lang. disorders and impaired thought processes
verbal and writing
Aud. comp and reading
-Differ in length and diameter and may be a few milimeters to several feet long
-longer are are larger in diameter due to more____laid down on it
Axons, myelin
-Electrochemical impulses from 1 neron to another
-takes place on the synapse
-often the axon of 1 neuron connects w/ the dendrites of another
Neural Transmission
Chemical substances that may be transferred from 1 neuron to another
-dopamine, acetocholine
A cluster of nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord
Cluster of nerve cells outside of the brain
-size of a grapfruit
-1250 grams
-cortex is 3 to 5 milli.
-R/L hemispheres
Regions of the brain and spinal cord containing clusters of nerve cells bodies.
-3 to 5 milli. thick
-covers entire surface of the cerebellum
Gray matter
Axonal bundles in CNS.
Postmordum looks cream colored
White matter
Integrated circuitry or network in the brain
Prposed brain having diff. areas connected by white matter
Norma Geswhind
Traditional lesion site of Aphasia
White matter (arcuate fasciculus)
Abnormal repitition impairment
White matter area between Broca's and Weirnickes may be disturbed
Masses of gray matter in the depth of the crebral hemispheres
- role in regulation of motor activities
Basal ganglia
Associated with procedural memory and PArkinson's
Basal Ganglia
Controlled by basal ganglia
-controls the smoothness of movement
-Voluntary motor activity is regulated, modulated, modified, sped up or down, increased or decreased in amplitude
Extrapyramidal System
Inner part of brain that lies between cerebral hemispheres
Collection of subcortical nuclei
-works with evaluating incoming sensory signals before directing to the cortex
Sensorimotor Relay Center
-Important for attention along with the Reticular Activiating System (RAS)
-Imp. fpr persons in unconsiousness
Recieves info. from the Thalamus and activates the muscles
Pyramidal System
Characterized by increasing or decreasing thresholds for sensations of touch, pain and temperature on the contralateral 1/2 of the body
Thalamic Syndrome
Increased rate
Hypokinetic disarthria
Clusters of nueral cells (gray matter) under cortical
Diencephalon parts:
Hippocampus, Amygdala
Largest of the venticles
Lateral ventricle
Motor strip
Relays info. to different cortical areas
ASsociated with social behavior, personality
-damage may result in disinhibition
Orbitofrontal area of the frontal lobe
Central site for neuroendocrine production and composed various metabolic activities such as water, balance, sugar, fat metabolism and body temperature
Types of cranial nerves:
Efferent and afferant
Activates muscles derived from somites. Includes skeletal, extrocular and glossal mucles
efferent cranial nerves
Most attach to the brain stem
Cranial nerves
Nerves that project to muscles of visceral organs
-reg. of heart and tracheal muscles
General visceral efferent
Nerves that mediate sensory innervations from somatic muscles, skin, ligaments and joints
General afferenet
Nerves that mediate sensory innervation from visceral organs including the larynx
General visceral
Responsible for innervating coordination
Divide the brain into 4 sections
Fissure where temporal lobe lies beside and below
Sylvian fissure
Fissure that is downward and forward from the top of the brain just past it's midpoint almost to the Sylvian fissure
-Frontal lobe is in fornt of it
Rolanic Fissure
Fluent stroke lesions are:
posterior to Rolandic fissure
Nonfluent stroke lesions are:
anterior to the Rolandic fissure
-largest of 4 lobes
-anterior to the Rolandic fissure and superior to the Sylvian fissure
-larger in humans
-uniquly human
Frontal lobe
areas that work together to control willed movements on the body opposite to the hemisphere
Sensorimotor strip
Sends messages to the muscles via the pyramidal system
Sensorimotr strip
Extrapyramidal system parts:
premotor frontal cortex, subcortical grey matter, cerebellum, vestibular system
Responsible for initiation of motor activity
Supplementary motor cortex
Responsible for synthesizing sensory stimuli from the brain and coordinating into action
Frontal premotor association cortex
Important for working memory and executive function
-linked with motor planning , hypothesis generation and set shifting
Dorsilateral (subdivision of frontal lobe)
Associated with social behavior and personality
-damage= disinhibition
Orbitofrontal (sub. of frontal lobe)
Associated with arousal and motivation
-deeper in frontal lobe
-damage= picture of apathy
Medial frontal (sub of frontal lobe)
Have many connections with subcortical areas such as the caudate nucleus, globus palidus and substantia nigra (Thalamus)
-Damage resembles Thalmus and white matter damage symptoms
Frontal subcortical circuits
Responsible for hearing and auditory comp
Temporal lobe
Aud. comp involves:
Multiple cortic-cortical and subcortical associations
Primarily for perception and elaboration of somesthetic sensations: body awareness, touch, pressure, position in space
Parietal Lobe
Responsible for vision
-optic nerve travels to the thalamus and then to the primary visual cortex
Occipital Lobe
Mediated emotion
-includes: uncus, paro-hippocampus gyrus, fornix, cingulate gyrus and mammillary glands
-connected to the hypothalamus, amygdala and frontal association cortex
Limbic system
-the L hemisphere
-supplied by middle cerebral artery (MCA)
-surrounded by Sylvian Fissure
Zone for Language
zone for language includes:
portions of frontal,parietal, temporal lobes, Broca's and Weirnicke's areas
-also includes subcortical white matter pathways such as the arcuate fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus

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