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Biol 2261 exam 1


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What amount of time lapsed between the discovery and the understanding of micro organisms?
200 years
what is microbiology?
deals w/ small living orgainsms that are too small to see w/o microscope.
the descovery of micro orgainsms depended on what?
the discovery of the microscope.
when was the microscope developed?
mid 1600's
Who discovered microbes?
Van Leeuwenhoek
what did Van leeuwenhoek call the small living organisms that he saw under his microscope?
what was the magnification of van leeuwenhoek's microscope
200 fold
what was a major cause of TB?
when was this dicovered?
where in the circle of life did van leeuwenhoek place his microbs?
in the great chain of being, as lowly animals, lower than worms.
What is biogenesis?
the idea that living organisms can only develope from previously existing organisms from the process of reproduction.
What is spontaneous generation?
the belief that life can be spontaneously generated from non living matter.
who tried to disprove spontaneous generation by placing meat in an open jar and meat in a closed jar?
who tried to disprove spontaneous generation by sealing a boiled nutrient broth in a flask w/ a flame?
who discovered that magotts do not spontaneously generate from rotting meat, but from flies?
what was the arguement against Spallanzani's experiement with the sealed flask?
the force could not get into the flask to produce spontaneous generation.
who tried to disprove biogenesis by placing broth in a flask, warmed it slightly, and then covered with a cloth so the force could get inside?
who was highered by the wine makers to find out why their wine was going bad?
who tried to disprove spontaneous generation by placing broth in a flask, boiling, and then bending neck into a swan necked shape?
who tried to disprove spontaneous generations by placing broth in a flask, boiling, and then connecting to a filter?
what is the process of boiling broth, then letting spores mature overnight then boiling again, over and over again called?
Do we use Tyndallization today?
No, we use pressure cookers instead.
what are the collection of methods used in the lab to manipulate microbial cultures w/o contamination called?
Acceptic Technique
When was the germ theory of disease discovered?
What causes infectious diseases?
growth of microbs
why were individuals deliberatly exposed to the mild form of small pox many, many years ago?
Most of those who got the mild form of small pox did not catch the deadly stain later.
who was the first person to issue vaccinations?
how did Jenner immunize against small pox?
He would rub puss from cow pox into open wounds.
who was the first to identify a disease to be caused by microbs?
who discovered that silk worm disease was caused by fungus?
who published that physicians should was their hands between seeing patients?
who was the first epidemiologist?
who traced an epidemic to the well water and quarentined it?
did Snow know that bacteria was causing the epidmic in his town?
who was the first person to sterilize w/ finol b/4 operating in people?
Who is associated with vaccinations against rabies?
who was the first to believe that spreading diseases where casued by micro organisms?
How did Pastuer try to isolate microbs
limited dilation
Who was the first to use Agar to isolate microbes?
What is agar made from?
polysaccharide extracted from seaweed
why is agar so good for isolating microbes?
very few bacterial can digest, remains stable up to 100 degrees. when cooled remain stable.
who discovered the streakplate method to isolate colonies of bacteria?
what is Koch’s postulates
in order to demonstrate that a micro causes a disease; you have to isolate a microbe in pure culture from a diseases animal. Then inoculate a healthy experimental animal and demonstrate the development in the experimental animal. Reisolate same microbe from experimental animal and repeat experiment several times getting same results.
what was the first disease demonstated by Koch's postulate?
what caused it?
When were public health and prevenative measures first instituted?
what is a vaccine?
a killed microbe or a fragment of a microbe that causes an immune response.
what is body temp?
37 degrees C
what are individual groups of one species called?
what is the first clue of the identification of a species?
what is morphology?
appearance, shape,elevation, etc.
when was anit-microbial therapy used?
20th century
when were antibiotics developed?
what two were the first developed?
striptamyison and penicillin
when did we learn that microbes can develope resistance to antibiotics?
last half of 20th century
what is recombinate DNA technology?
using microbes to grow new products
what are some signs of a post antibiotic era?
"new" diseases, resurgence of "old" diseases, microbial resistance to drugs, and immunospression.
what is taxonomy?
biology dealing with the classification of organisms.
list in order, from general to more specific, the organization of organisms.
ii)Kingdom divided into phylum
iii)Each phylum divided into classes and so on
vii)Species-smallest group
what is the Phylogenetic classification system?
groups reflect genetic similarity and evolutionary relatedness (ex a small dog and a large dog).
what is the phonetic classification system?
- groups do not necessarily reflect genetic similarity or evolutionary relatedness. Instead, groups are based on convenient or observable characteristics. (i.e. Size, color ex. a small dog and a cat).
is phylogenetic or phonetic classification prefered?
Species are ID'ed by their reproductive compatibility and geographic distribution, since microbes reproduce asexually, how are they identified?
by comparing it to known type strains.
what are known type strains?
well characterized pure cultures
what is the repository to get collections of known type strains?
American type culture collection (atcc)-
what is a specific or defined type of organism, defined by similarity with known species
what is a genetic variations within a species. (ex bread of dog).
how are scientific names made?
genus name + species name
how can you tell if a species name is scientific or systematic?
it will be italicized or underlined, capitalized.
can you abbreviate a species part of a scientific name?
what is the common name for Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
tubercle bacullus
what is the common name for Neiserria meningitidis?
what is the common name for Streptococcus pyogenes?
what kind of cells have complex internal membrane system compartmentalization i.e. membrane enclosed organelles and DNA are enclosed in a membrane-bound nucleus?
Eukaryotic cells
what kind of cells are animal and plant cells?
What are the Eukaryotic kingdoms?
Kingdom Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and animalia
what kingdom of the Eukaryotic cells does each beling?
1)Multi cellular plant
2)molds and yeast
3)fleshy fungi(mushrooms)
4)multi cellular animal cells
describe the cells of Protozoa organisms
animal like cells
describe the cells of algae organisms
plant like cells
What kind of cells have no or few internal membranes
Prokaryotic cells
Many processes that are associated with organelles in eukaryotes (i.e. respiration (carried out by mitochondria), photosynthesis) are mediated by ________ in prokaryotes.
specialized regions of the plasma membrane
do prokaryotic cells have a membrane bound nucleus and nucleoids?
what are nucleoid regions of prokaryotic cells?
specialized region of the cytoplasm of the cell that contain the DNA.
What kind of cells are bacteria?
What are the Prokaryotic Kingdoms?
Kingdom Eubacteria (true bacteria) and archaeabacteria
what kind of cell has no cellular biological entity, the nucleic acid is surrounded by a protein shell, and some posses a membrane-like envelope surrounding the particle?
Do viruses contain DNA and RNA?
no, one or the other
are viruses complex or simple structures?
when do viruses replicate?
only inside an infected host cell
do viruses have independent metabloisms or replication?
No, do not replicate by cell division
how do viruses replicate?
attachment, dissassemble, synthesis, reassemble, and release.
describe Disassembly of virus celss
outer sell comes apart freeing RNA molecule
describe Sinthesis of viral protein and nuclaeic acid
viral RNA attaches to rhibisome and replicates
Describe Reassembly of new viral particles in the replication process.
reassembly of capsul around newly made viral RNA
Describe release of new viral particles in the replication process.
cell burst open thru lysis or budding and rleases particles.
What is any deviation from a condition of good health and well-being called?
What is a disease condition caused by the presence or growth of infectious microorganisms or parasites called?
Infectious disease
what is the ability of a microbe to cause disease called?
What is the degree of pathogenicity in a microorganism called?
of pathogenicity and virulence, which term is often used to descirbe or compare strains w/in a species?
which is used to decribe or compare species?
what is an infection characterized by sudden onset, rapid progression and often w/ severe symptoms called?
Acute infection
What is an infection characterized by delayed onset and slow progression called?
chronic infection
What is an infection that develops in an otherwise healthy individual
Primary infection
What is an infection that develops in an individual who is already infected with a different pathogen.
Secondary infection
What is An infection that is restricted to a specific location or region w/in the body of the host?
localized infection
what is an infection that spread to several regions or areas in the body of the host?
systemic infection
what is an infection w/ obvious observable or detectable symptoms?
Clinical infeciton
what is an infection w/ few or no obvious symptoms?
Sub clinincal infection
what is an infection caused by microorganisms that are commonly found in the host's enviro. or normal flora?
opportunistic inifection
are organisms in the normal flora pathogenic?
Some are and some are not
what suffix means "prsence of an infectious agent"?
What does each mean:
1)presence of infecious bacteria
2) " " " virus
3) " " " fungus
4) " " " agent in the blood stream
what suffix means "inflammation of"?
what is each?
1)inflammation of the pharynx
2) " " " Heart chambers
3) " " " gastointestinal tract
what is the study of the transmission of diseases?
what types of questions do epidemiologists answer?
What is the source of the disease, what is the reservoir(where does it live), how is it transfered to humans.
what is a disease that can be transmitted from one individaul to another called?
communicable disease
What is a communicable disease that is easily spread from one individual to another called?
Contagious disease
What is a disease that is not transmitted from on individual to another called?
Noncommunicable disease
what is A disease condition that is normally found in a certain % of a population. Commonly found (i.e. Common cold, or common strain of flu).
Endemic disease
what is a disease condition present in a greater than usual % of a specific population.
Epidemic disease
what is a disease called that affects a large geographical area; often on a global scale.
pandemic disease
what is the cut off % between an epidemic and pandemic disease
it depends on the disease, sometimes one case is considered a pandemic.
what is the source of an infectious agent. (i.e. Water, soil, environment) called?
Reservoir of infection
what is an individual who carries and infectious agent w/o manifesting symptoms, yet who can transmit the agent to another individual called?
what is any inanimate object capable of being an intermediate in the indirect transmission of an infectious agent. (i.e. Toilet seat, door handles, money) called?
what is an animal (non human) that can transmit an infections agent to humans called?
animal vectors
what are the two types of animal vectors called?
Biological and mechanical animal vectors
which animal vector is one in which the infectious agent must incubate in the animal host as part of the agent’s developmental cycle (i.e. The transmission of malaria by infected mosquitoes)?
biological animal vector
which animal vector is one in which the infectious agent is physically transmitted by the animal vector, but the agent does not incubate or grow in the animal (ex. the transmission of bacteria sticking to the feet of flies) called?
Medchanical animal vector
list each as direct or indirect mechanisms of disease transmission.
1) Food and waterborne transmission
2)animal vectors
3)direct skin contact
2) "
4) "
what are microbes that normally reside in or on human body called?
normal flora
what are the types of symbiosis(normal flora)?
mutualism, commensalism, parasitism
what is a symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit?
What is a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits, and the other species is neither helped nor harmed?
what is a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefies, and the other species is harmed called?
in parasitism which species generally benefits?
the parasite/smaller one.
where is normal flora found in the human body?
skin, supper respiratory tract, oral cavity, intestine (especially large), and vigianl tract.
where is there very little normal flora found in the human body?
eyes and stomach
Do fetuses have normal flora?
where is normal flora notably absent in the human body?
most all internal organs
lower respiratory tract, muscle tissue, blood and tissue fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneum, pericardium, meninges.
What are some of the benefits of having normal flora?
a)Nutrient production/ processing (i.e. vit. K production by E. coli)
b)Competition w/ pathogenic microbes – very important
c)Normal development of immune system
what are the 7 generalized stages of infections?
Entry of pathogen into host, colonization, incubation, prodromal symptoms, invasive period, decline of infection, and convalescence.
where does colonization of infection typically occur?
at site of entry by sticking/adhereing to surface.
during which of the 7 stages of infection is the asymptomatic peroid (no symptoms) experienced?
incubation period
When is the incubation period of the infection?
between the initial contact with the microbe until the appearance of the first symptoms.
what are the prodromal symptoms of infection?
initial symptoms of infection ie tickling in throat.
what causes the prodromal symptoms of infection?
the begining of the immune response to an infection.
which of the 7 stages of infection involve increase in severity of symptoms?
invasive period
does fever kill bacteria causing infection?
no, fever will not get high enough before killing person
What is the Acme/fastigium period of infection?
the period of the greaetest extent of the infection/ turning point, recover begins after this.
Which of the 7 stages of infection involve recovery and return to a degree of health?
what determines the virulence(deadliness) of bacteria? ie yogurt vs e.coli.
the state of the host, the number of pathogenic cells encountered by the host, enzymatic virulence factors, adhesion factors, exotoxins, and endotoxins.
what is the number of pathogenic cells encountered by the host called?
infectious dose
what are the enzymatic virulence factors of coagulase (Staphylococcus aureus)?
triggers fibrin clot formation, impeding movement of wbc into area.
What are the enzymatic virulence factors of Streptokinases (Streptococcus pyogenes)?
acts to break down clots. Highly invasive, so immune system tries to surround microbe with a clot to prevent spreading, strepto. Tries to break apart clot to spread easier.
What are the enzymatic virulence factors of Hyaluronidase?
– breaks down hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid is a polysaccharide that helps to bond together epithelial cells. So penetrates epithelial tissue barriers.
What are the enzymatic virulence factors of Collagenase?
collagen=a major part of CT. Collagenase helps microbe to penetrate CT barriers.
What are the enzymatic virulence factors of Leucocidin?
Kills leukocytes (wbc)
What are the enzymatic virulence factors of Hemolysin?
break down erythrocytes (red blood cells). Provide nutrients to bacteria from RBC.
Can exotoxins be produced by gram-positive or negative bacteria?
Does the action of the exotoxin require the presence of the bacteria in the host?
how are exotoxins entered into the host?
secreted by the bacteria
what are most exotoxins made of?
peptides or proteins
do most exotoxins like or dislike heat?
dislike, they are heat sensitive, except Staphylococcus aureus/
what are the classes of exotoxins?
Neurotoxic, cytotoxic, enterotoxic
Which exotoxin interferes w/ proper synaptic transmissions in neurons?
Which exotoxin inhibits specific cellular activities, such as protein synthesis?
Which exotoxin interferes w/ water reabsorption in the large intestine; irritate the lining of the gastrointestinal tract?
Are endotoxins produced by gram-positive or negative bacteria?
Are exotoxins or endotoxins components of the gram-negative cell wall?
Does the action of indotoxins require the presence of the bacteria in the host?
What are endotoxins composed of?
Lipid A: part of the lipopolysaccharide layer
what affects do endotoxins have?
irritation/inflammation of epithelium, GI, capillary/blood vessels, and hemorraging.
What are cells that are spherical in shape called?
What are cells that are spherical and arranged in chains called?
What are cells that are spherical and arranged in clusters called?
What are cells that are spherical and arranged in pairs called?
What are cells that are spherical and arranged in groups of four called?
What are cells that are spherical and arranged in groups of eight called?
What are cells that are rod-shaped called?
What are cells that are rod-shaped and arranged in pairs called?
What are cells that are rod-shaped and arranged in end to end chains called?
What are cells that are irregularly rod-shaped anf form v or L shapes called?
Coryneform bacillus
What are cells that are rigid and spiral called?
What are cells that are curved of comma shaped called?
What are cells that are flexible spriral shaped called?
What is the typical size of bacterial cells?
.1-20 micrometers
What is the typical size of coccus bacteria?
1 micrometer
What is the typical size of short rod bacteria?
1-5 micrometers
Is the size of bacteria w/in the resolution of a compound light microscope?
yes, barely
What is the resolution of compound light microscopes?
approx. 2 micrometers
Are capsules of bacterial cells general or strain specific, or species specific?
Strain and species specific
what is a capsule of a bacterial cell?
is it tightly or loosely bound?
Polysaccharide or polypeptide layer outside cell wall.
How is the capsule of bacterial cells detected?
negative staining techniques
What are the functions of the capsule of the bacterial cell?
Attachments – help to stick bacteria
Resistance to drying out
Nutrient storage
Evasion of phagocytosis
what disguiese the bacterial cell surface so it is not as easily identified by wbc's?
Is the R strain or the S strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae more virulent? why?
S. strain, because it is encapsulated.
What is a Polysaccharide matrix found outside the plasma membrane of cell called?
Cell wall
What is the function of the cell wall?
to increase structural stability and protects against osmotic lyses (swelling and bursting).
What is an example of a differential technique is which more than one stain is used and different groups of bacteria will stain differently called?
Gram staining
who developed the method of gram staining? when?
Gram in 1888
What color do gram positive cells stain?
Gram negative?
What is the major factor that determines gram rxns?
Cell wall structures
What are the two meanings of gram postive and negative terms?
Staining results or types of cell wall structures.
what are the steps for gram staining?
crystal violet - 60 sec
iodine/amordant - 30 sec
decolorize w/ acetone alcohol
saffranin - 60 sec
what is the first stain used in gram staining called?
the primary stain
What does amordant/gram's iodine do in gram staining?
intensifies a staining rxn.
what is a peptidoglycan structure?
a polysaccharide composed of alternating units of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid(gram positive and negative).
what kind of bond is there between the N-acetylmuramic acid(NAM) unites?
peptide corsslinking
describe gram positive cell walls.
thick layer of highly crosslinked peptioglycan and teichoic acid stands.
Describe gram negative cell walls.
they have a thiner layer of peptioglycan with no teichoic acid, contain an outer membrane, and have periplasmic space.
what composes the outer membrane of gram negative cell walls?
Lipopolysaccharide layer containing lipid A, phospholipid layer, and outer membrane proteins.
What is each NAM unit composed of?
a chain of 4 peptides connecting to another NAM.
what is the function of peptodoglycan structures?
to increase strength to peptidoglycan and creates a net like structure.
What is teichoic acid composed of?
chains of glycerol or ribitol.
What is the purpose of teichoic acid?
it anchors peptidolglycan to plasma membrane and provides structure. may serve as an adhesive factor.

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