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ID 6.34


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a.k.a. Nematodes
Ascaris (Toxocara)
Ingest eggs, larvae migrate to lungs
Swallow larvae, adult worms grow in gut
Only problematic if heavily infected - may lead to intestinal obstruction or malnourishment
Zoonotic ascaris
People ingest eggs, larvae invade but cannot complete their life-cycle
This results in larvae swimming around in blood stream w/no way to get out.

Result? Liver/Brain/Eys dissemination (w/granuloma formation)
Visceral/Ocular Migral Larvans
Sequelae of toxocara infection (zoonotic ascaris). Larvae incapable of leaving body and elicit an inflammatory response (granulomas) that can be found w/in viscera or eyes!
Larvae penetrate skin, migrate to lungs and are swallowed
Adult worms reside w/in gut and munch on villi, dispelling eggs in stool
Cutaneous Larva Migrans
Due to zoonotic hookworm infection
Worms cannot migrate to lungs to complete lifecycle
This results in a pruritic, serpentine rash
Ingest eggs
Larvae mature in lungs
Generally asymptomatic unless heavy infection
Larvae infect skin, migrate to and mature w/in intestinal wall
Adult worms shed larvae in stool
The larvae will REINFECT host via perianal skin
In addition, will often drag additional pathogens (i.e. surface bacteria) with them!
Which Helminth is implicated in autoinfection?
Pass larve that will reinfect through perianal skin
Which Helminth is implicated in hyperinfection?
With heightened reinfection, these larvae will drag other pathogens into the body (i.e. surface bacteria). The resulting scenario = sepsis on top of helminth infection
Eat infected meat (cysts w/larvae)
Larvae become adult worms, which churn out new larvae
Larvae migrate through intestine and take residence in MUSLCE - cause myositis
Which helminth causes myalgia?
Tricinella (larvae invade muscle)
Filarial Parasites
1) Lymphatic filiarsis: spread by mosquitos; adult worms reside w/in lymph nodes and cause obstruction (elephantitis)
2) Onchocerciasis: skin/eye lesions - river blindness
3) Lao Lao: continuual migration through soft tissues/eyes

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