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Health Vocab Chapter 12


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the substances that the body needs to regulate bodily functions, promote growth, repair body tissues, and obtain energy
the process by which the body takes in and uses these nutrients
the chemical processes by which your body breaks down food to release this energy
the amount of energy released when nutrients are burned is measured in these units
nutrients made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; they are a great source of energy; simple and complex
the most important sugar/simple carbohydrate; the major provider of energy for the cells of the body
a starch that extra glucose is converted into and stored in the body
a type of complex carbohydrate found in plants that cannot be broken down and absorbed in the bloodstream; it passes through the body undigested
a fat that contains fewer than the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms in its structure
Unsaturated Fats
a fat that contains as many hydrogen atoms in its structure as is possible chemically
Saturated Fats
a waxy, fat-like substance found in the cells of all animals; associated with heart disease
nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
smaller substances that make up proteins
Amino Acids
the nine amino acids that the body cannot manufacture
Essential Amino Acids
nutrients that are made by living things, are required only in small amounts, and assist in may chemical reactions
occurs when a person does not get enough of a specific nutrient
nutrients that occur naturally in rocks and soil
carries oxygen from your lungs to all parts of your body
a condition in which the red blood cells do not contain enough hemoglobin
the dissolved substances found in water that reculates cell processes
the process of maintaining a steady state in your body
a serious reduction in the body’s water content
a graph that groups foods according to types and indicates how many servings of each type should be eaten daily
Food Guide Pyramid
the proportion of nutrients in a food compared to the number of calories
Nutrient Density
a recommendation, developed by nutrition experts in the US government, for the amount of a specific nutrient that the average person should obtain each day
Daily Values
any condition in which a person’s nutrient consumption is inadequate or unbalanced
a serious condition in which the diet does not contain adequate protein, nor does it supply enough calories to meet the body’s energy needs
Protein Energy Malnutrition

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