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AU Biology 110 Chapters 1-8


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Chemical Evolution
Chemical compounds combine to form more complex ones.
Radiometric Dating
Finding how old something is by counting the half lives.
"Equal places" Forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons.
Mass Number
The sum of protons and neutrons of the most common isotope.
Atomic Number
The number of protons.
A region in which electrons move around. Each one contains two electrons.
Electron Shells
Groups of orbitals.
Valence Shell
The outermost shell.
Covalent Bond
Atoms are held together by shared electrons.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
An equal sharing of electrons.
Polar Covalent Bonds
Asymmetric sharing of electrons.
The tendency of some atoms to hold electrons more tightly.
Highest electronegativity to lowest. Also, make up 96.3% of the human body.
A charged atom or molecule.
Ionic Bond
Electrons are transfered from one atom to another.
Positively charged ion.
Negatively charged ion.
6.022 x 10^23
The number of moles of a substance per liter of a solution.
Chemical Reaction
A substance is combined with others or broken down into another substance.
Heating within. ie liquid water to steam.
Outside heating. ie water vapor to liquid.
Chemical Equilibrium
a dynamic but stable state in which the concentration of reactants remain constant.
Potential Energy
Stored energy
Kinetic Energy
The energy of motion.
Thermal Energy
The temperature. (The kinetic energy of molecular motion).
Gibbs Free-Energy Exchange
A measure of the change in potential energy and entropy that occurs in a chemical reaction. Determines if the reation will be spontaneous.
Spontaneous reactions that release energy and increase entropy.
Non spontaneous reations that store energy and require an input of energy.
Free Radical
Atom with upared electron that is unstable. ie single Hydrogen atom.
Chemical Energy
Potential energy stored in chemical bonds.
Reduction Oxidation reaction. Chemical reactions that involve the loss or gain of an election. OIL RIG (Oxidation Is Loss, Reduction Is Gain)
Organic Molecules
Molecules that contain carbon.
Hydrogen Bond
A weak bond that is formed from the partial positive charge of a hydrogen atom on one molecule with a partial negative charge of an atom (usually O or N) on another molecule.
Specific Heat
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.
Highly poloar covalent bonds between Oxygen and Hydrogen. An extraordinarily high specific heat. Its polarity makes it the universial solvent. Can act as both an acid and a base.
Heat of Vaporization
The energy required to change 1 gram from a liquid to a gas.
Substances that give up protons during chemical reations. (H+, hydrogen ion is simply a proton)
Molecules or ions that acquire protons during chemical reactions (OH-, hydroxide ion)
Acid-Base Reactions
Reactions that involve a transfer of protons.
pH scale
Power of Hydrogen, the measure of hydrogen ions H+. 14 is basic 1 is acidic. Pure water is 7 neutral.
Stanley Miller's 1953 experiment
Started with water methane (CH4) Ammonia (NH3) and Hydrogen (H2). Added heat and sparks. Results contained formaldehyde (H2CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and amino acids.
Molecules that have the some molecular formula but different structure. eg. sucrose and fructose
"one-part" a single molecular subunit such as an amino acid or sugar.
"many-parts" Many monomers bound together.
The process of monomers linking form polymers.
Large molecule that is made up of smaller molecules joined together.
Linear macromolecule, a polymer made up of amino acid monomers.
Condensation Reactions
Or Dehydration Reactions, monomers polymerize through these. The bond results in the loss of a water molecule.
Breaking apart polymers by adding a water molecule.
Peptide Bond

A chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
"few peptides" fewer than 50 amino acids linked together.
Scared of water, like Valine.
Loves water like Lysine
Amino Acid
Amino group linked to a carboxyl (acid) group and an H, C, and R.
Primary Structure
Unique sequence of amino acids that form protein's peptide-bonded backbone.
Secondary Structure
Shape of peptide-bonded backbone that is formed from hydrogen bonds that make an alpha-helix or a beta-pleated sheet.
Tertiary Structure
Define the 3-D shape of protein. Made up of alpha-helices and beta-pleated sheets.
Quaternary Structure
Shape produced by combinations of polypeptides.
Disulfide bonds
A covalet bond between two sulfur atoms, contributes to tertiary structure of protein.
Van Der Waals Interactions
Weak electrical attraction between two hydrophobic side chains. Contributes to tertiary structure.
Unfolding a protein's stucture by breaking hydrogen and disulfide bonds.
Molecular Chaperone
Protiens that help fold newly synthesized protiens.
Nonpolar hydrophobic organic compound. Types include: Steroids, Phospholipids and Fats.






Non-Ionized Amino Acid

Ionized Amino Acid

Fatty Acid

Steroid Image
page 107
Phospolipid Image
page 107
Fat Image
page 107
Ester Linkage
Covalent bond between fatty acid and glycerol to form fat or phospholipid.
Dehydration Reaction
Joins fatty acid to glycerol when water leaves.
Phospolipid Bilayer
Created when two sheets of lipid molecules align with their hydrophobic tails facing each other.
Compounds that contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic elements.
A carbon double bond exists in the hydrocarbon tail of a fatty acid and produces a kink. Kinks in a lipid bilayer allow for higer permiability.
No carbon double bond exists in the hydrocarbon tail of a fatty acid. Lipid bilayers with these are less permiable than unsaturated.
Dissolved molecules and ions.
Concentration gradient
Difference in concentration.
Movement of molecules and ions from high concentration to low concentration.
Diffusion of water, occurs with a selectively permiable membrane.
Isotonic Solution
The concentration of solutes is the same on both sides of a membrane
Hypotonic Solution
The conentration of a solute is less on the outside of a membrane so water enters and causes it to burst.
Hypertonic Solution
The concentration of a solvent is greater on the outside of a membrane so water leaves and causes it to shrivel.
Integral Membrane Proteins
Or transmembrane proteins have elements facing both interior and exterior surfaces of a membrane.
Peripheral Membrane Proteins
Found only on one side of a membrane.
Diffusion Membrane Transport
Passive movement along an electrochemical gradient through a membrane or channel.
Facilitated Diffusion Membrane Transport
A transmembrane transport protein moves the molecule without the expeniture of energy.
Active Membrane Transport
Transports ions against their electrochemical gradient. The energy required for this is from ATP converting to ADP.
"ion-mover" used in facilited diffusion.
"cell-formed" contents of the cell inside the membrane.
"little organ" a membrane bound compartment in the cytoplasm that contains enzymes.
The fluid portion of the cytoplasm.
The interior of any sac-like structure. (technically cytoplasm is a lumen).
"inside-cell-act" any pinching off of the plasm a membrane that results in the uptake of material from outside the cell.
The secretion of cellular contents to the outside of the cell by fusion of viscles to the plasma membrane.
No membrane-bound nucleus but nucleoid. Flagella for movement. Plasmids with DNA.
Membrane bound nucleus. Larger than prokaryotes.
Plant Cell
Has a cell wall in addition to plasma membrane. Has chloroplasts which are organelles that convert sunlight to energy via photosynthesis.
Endomembrane System
Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes and ER. The primary center for protein and lipid synthesis.
Nuclear Lamina
Fibrous proteins that stiffen the envelope and helps organize chromasomes.
Nuclear Envelope
Double membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
Chromasomes that are highly compact and supercoiled.
Chromasomes that are unwound into long, filamentous strands.
Manufactures rRNA molecules.
Creates proteins
Rough ER
Membrane bound sacs and tubules containing ribsomes.
Smooth ER
ER without ribosomes that synthesis lipids. Also stores calcium.
Golgi Apparatus
Processes, sorts, and ships proteins from the ER. Made up of sacs called Cisternae.
Centers for oxidation reactions. Catalyses hdrogen peroxide H202. They grow and divide independently.
Solid waste processing and storage. Called vacuoles in plant cells.
"eat-cell-act" the plasma membrane of a cell surrounds food and engulfs it. it then goes to the lysosome.
"samge-eating" damaged organelles are surrounded by a membrane and delivered to lysosome.
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Food binds to membrande protiens that act as receptors. The plasma membrane folds and pinches off creating a vesicle called a early endosome. Digestive enzymes come from the golgi apparatus and mature to late endosomes and eventually lysosomes.
"drink cell-act" vesicles form on the plasma membrane the fluid is not transported to the lysosomes.
Double-membraned made up of mitochondrial matrix. Produces ATP.
Site of photosynthesis. Double-membrane. Thlakoids are flattend vesicles. Granum are stacked thlakoids. Stroma other regions with enzymes.
Cell Wall
Only in plant cells. Contains Lignin for protection.
Nuclear Transportation
NLS is the package with zip code. Importins are the truck. ATP is the gas. Ran is the unloading crew. GDP/GTP is the supervisor.
Made of actin filaments and microtubules that provide structural support.
Vesicle Transport Requires
ATP (Gas), microtubules (tracks), vesicle (cargo), kinesin train.
Kinesin and Dynein
Motor protiens
Function in movement. In eukaryotic cells they are made of microtubules. In bacteria they are made of a protein called flagellin.
How are Cilia and Flagella constructed?
The axoneme has a 9 + 2 microtubule arangement. And the basal body has a 9 + 0.
Single-ringed nitrogenous bases. cyosine, uricil (rna only), thymine (dna only)
Double-ringed nitrogenous bases. guanine and adenine.
What keeps genetic material together?
Hydrogen bond.
An RNA molecule that acts as a catalyst.
Consists of a phosphate group, 5-carbon sugar and a nitrogenous base.
The most abundant organic molecule. Makes up the cell wall in plant cells.
Makes the secondary cell wall in plant cells. Makes wood hard.
Middle Lamina
The space between cell walls composed mostly of pectins.
In plants, the gaps in cell walls that create conections between cytoplasms. Tubule of ER pass through these.
Extra cellular matrix. Made up of fibroconectins, integrins and collagen.
Selective Adhesion
When cells in tissue bond to the same type.
Rivets that hold animal cells together by binding their cytoskeletons.
Gap Junctions
Span membranes in animal cells and admin small molecules such as amino acids, sugars and nucleotides.
Tight Junctions
Animal cell-cell attachment that form a quilt pattern and a water tight seal.
Any molecule that binds to a receptor molecule.
A ligand that acts as an intercellular signal.
Signal Receptor
Proteins that bind to a signal and change conformity or activity in response.
G Protien
Bind to GTP and GDP. Signal transducers that have a time-delayed turn off switch.
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
Starts a phosphorylation cascade that uses ATP send signal other protiens.
Induced Fit
The change in shape of an enzyme in response to a reactant molecule binding to the active site.
A substance that lowers the activation energy of a reaction
Proteins that catalyze reactions.
Enzyme Cofactors
Atoms or molecules that are not part of the enzymes structure that are required for the enzyme to function.
Competitive Inhibition
Catalysis is inhibited by molecules that compete with the substrane for access to the active site.
Allosteric Regulation
A molecule binds at a site other than the active site and causes the enzyme to change shape making the active site inaccessible.


Glycosidic Linkage
Polymerization of simple sugars through a condesation reaction of two hyrdoxl groups.
Glucose monomers joined by glycosidic linkages.
Highly branched polysacchoride
"many sugars" polymers formed from linked monosaccharides.
A polysaccharide that stiffens cell walls in plants. Also forms the skeletons of insects.
Enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages in glycogen.
Unbranched helix
Branched helix

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