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Sparknotes SAT II Biology - Cell thorugh Bio Chem


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Who made accurate single-lens microscopes and saw the first bacteria?
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
(some Dutch clothing dealer)
What did Antonie van Leeuwenhoek call bacteria and protists?
Who made the compound microscope?
Robert Hooke
What did Robert Hooke observe on cork?
boxlike compartments of the wood, cells
Who proclaimed that cells are the elementary particles of organisms? When did they do this?
Matthias Schleiden and Theodore Schwann, 1839
Who proclaimed "All cells come from other cells?" and when did he say this?
German pathologist Rudolph Virchow in 1855
What is the cell theory?
All living things are made of cells.
All cells arise from preexisting cells.
Why are cells small?
Must keep a good ratio of surface area to volume
Why is high volume bad for a cell?
Requires more metabolic activity
Why is low surface area bad for a cell?
Won't be able to allow nutrients in/out of the cell.
Which grows faster in a cell, volume or surface area?
what is approximately the ratio of surface area-to-volume necessary for survival of cells?
10 micrometers
How do scientists prepare slides in order to distinguish between parts of the cell?
stains or phase contrast microscopy (uses filters to emphasize contrast)
Can electron microscope virew living matter?
eu- means?
karyon means?
kernal (nucleus)
pro- means?
what is the function of the cytoplasm in prokaryotes?
maintain shape
some prokaryotes have a cell wall made of what protein-sugar combination?
what are prokaryotes advantage to eukaryotes?
their simplicity lets them survive environmental extremes
what is the cytoplasm made up of?
what is the cytoskeleton/its function?
protein structure that maintains shape and helps move organelles around the cell
what is the cytoskeleton made up of?
microtubules and microfilaments
what are microtubules?
thick, hollow rods that provide a strong scaffold for the cell
what are microfilaments?
actin filaments strung around the perimeter to help cell withstand strain
what are cilia and flagella powered by?
what are animal muscles and amoebic movement power by?
contracting/expanding microfilaments
what do organelles use to slide around the cell?
microtubules protein tracks
what do dna molecules wrap around?
histone proteins
what do histones make up?
what is a nucleolus?
dark structure that manufactures ribosomes
what are the parts of mitochondria?
outer membrane, intermembrane space, inner membrane, cristae, matric
what are organelles do plants have but animals dont?
chloroplast, cell wall, large central vacuole, amyloplasts
what are organelles do animals have but plants dont?
how do some cells survive in freshwater?
they possess contractile vacuoles to pump out water
what do the ERs do?
smooth-transports proteins/manufactures fats
digest waste
what is a carbohydrate?
1:2:1 ratio
what is a monosaccharide?
carbohydrate monomer (eg. glucose and fructose)
what are the differences between glucose and fructose?
glucose - double bond on top carbon, hexagonal ring, major source of energy in cellular activities
fructose - double bond on top and second carbon, pentagonal ring, found in fruits
what are disaccharides?
two monosaccharides undergo dehydration synthesis to connect (eg glucose+fructose=sucrose)
what are common functions of polysaccharides?
storage or structure
what are the polysaccharides in plants? animal?
starch, glycogen
what are some structural polysaccharides?
what makes up an amino acid?
amine, carboxyl, hydrogen, and variable group around a carbon
how many naturally reaccuring amino acids are there?
what bond joins two amino acids?
peptide bond by dehydration synthesis
what are the primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of proteins?
primary-intial sequence
secondary-initial folding and winding
tertiary-overall folding
what causes proteins to denature?
extreme pH and heat cause them to unfold
what are lipids made of?
hydrocarbon chains
what is the base of a triglyceride?
a glycerol molecule
what is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fat?
saturated-no double bond
what type of fat do plants have? animal?
unsaturated, saturated
which type of fat is solid at room temp?
what is the differenced between a phospholipid and a triglyceride?
switch one fatty acid with a phosphate group
what part of the phospholipid is hydrophilic?
phosphate because it is polar
what are steroids made of?
4 fused carbon rings with a hydrocarbon chain
which are other steroids synthesized from?
what makes up a nucleotide?
nitrogenous base, phosphate, sugar molecule(glucose for DNA, fructose for RNA)

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