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path tests and stains and stuff


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Pyelonephritis Acute: Affects _______ of kidney
Pyelonephritis Acute: Spares ____________
Pyelonephritis Acute: _______ _______ in urine are pathognomonic
WBC casts
Distinctive giant cell in blood; binucleate or bilobed with 2 halves as mirror images ("owl's eyes"); name and disease association
Reed-Sternberg cells, necessary but not sufficient for dx of Hodgkin's disease. Variants include lacunar cells in nodular sclerosis variant.
How many types of Hodgkin's disease?
4 - see also p. 241
Only variant of Hodgkin's seen more in women than men
nodular sclerosis
prognosis of nodular sclerosis variant of Hodgkin's
firm supraclavicular lymph node, often on left side, easily palpable (ie, by medical students), also known as "jugular gland" - name and association
Virchow's node - presumptive evidence of malignant visceral neoplasm (classically stomach)
most common cause of microcytic hypochromic anemia
iron deficiency
ferritin levels in microcytic hypochromic anemia
serum iron-binding capacity in microcytic hypochromic anemia
lead poisoning gives what appearance on peripheral smear
microcytic hypochromic
causes of megaloblastic anemia
folate or B12 deficiency
5-7 lobes (hypersegmented) PMNs in
megaloblastic anemia
large RBCs (MCV >100) in
megaloblastic anemia
do you give folate to pt. deficient in B12?
autoimmune disease that causes B12 deficiency; what does it deplete?
pernicious anemia, depletes intrinsic factor
where is B12 absorbed in gut?
terminal ileum, with intrinsic factor from stomach
Target cells mnemonic
HALT (Hemoglobin C disease, Asplenia, Liver disease, Thalassemia)
Hemoglobin SS in what disease?
sickle cell anemia
molecular change B-globin GLU->VAL at #6
8% of US african-americans carry what Hb
conditions in which HbSS cells sickle
hypoxia, dehydration, increased blood viscosity
vaso-occlusive crises with chest pain in young african-americanl; consider
sickle cell anemia
aplastic crises in sickle cell anemia associated with which virus
B19 virus
manifestation of sickle cell anemia in spleen
splenic sequestration crisis
increased risk of CVA in sickle cell anemia?
AST or ALT used for MI?
AST only
AST or ALT more elevated in viral hepatitis
ALT>AST in viral hepatitis ("virALT")
AST or ALT more elevated in alcholic hepatitis
AST>ALT in alcoholic hepatitis ("ToAST")
Amylase elevation
acute pancreatitis, mumps
Low ceruloplasmin
Wilson's disease
Creatine phosphokinase elevated in
muscle disorders (Duchenne's muscular dystrophy), and MI
subtype of CPK elevated in MI
GGT stands for and elevated in
gamma glutamyl transferase, various liver diseases
Lipase elevated in
acute pancreatitis
Alkaline phosphatase elevated in
Bone disease (Paget's disease of bone), obstructive liver disease (hepatocellular carcinoma)
Vimentin stains what
connective tissue
Desmin stains what
Cytokeratin stains what
epithelial cells
Glial fibrillary acid proteins (GFAP) stains what
Neurofilament stains what

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