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Islam Vocabulary for Philosophy 2010


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the Quranic term for the one true God
a universalist sec who believe that the 12th Imam returned in the 1800's. Draws criticism from othordox do to the addition of a different prophet.
those successors of Muhammad who, after the death of Muhammad, ruled the territories; also used to designate the head of he Muslim Ummah
the month of the Muslim year of special significance to the Shia, who commemorate the memory and martyrdom of their Imam Husayn during the first ten days of Muharram, the tenth day being known as ‘Ashura’
a chapter of the Quran
a report recording a saying or action of the Prophet Muhammad
the pilgrimage to Mecca and its environs during the month of pilgrimage; when visited at other times during the year, the visit is called Umrah
“community,” an inclusive concept signifying Muslims as well as those under Muslim protection
the Prophet’s immigration from Mecca to Medina in 622, the year from which the Muslim lunar calendar begins
leader, generally referring to the person who leads others in prayer; in the past the term was used interchangeably with caliph, for the head of the state and occasionally as an honorific title for very learned religious scholars. Among the Shia, the Imam is a divinely appointed leader, succeeding the Prophet. He possesses spiritual knowledge and guides Muslims to an understanding of the inner meaning of revelation as well as implementing Islamic values according to changing times and circumstances.
struggle in the way of Islam; also applied to armed struggle for the cause of Islam (the one who fights is called mujahid)
the cubic structure in Mecca, the focal point of ceremonies of pilgrimage and the direction to which all Muslims turn for prayer
the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad
an early Islamic group who rejected both Muawiyah and Ali in the first civil war, they give focus to administration and justice as it is in the Quran
the title given by the Shia to the hidden Imam whose return is awaited, means or is implied to mean messiah
your guess is as goog as mine
the revelation of God to Muhammad in its collected form
the month in which fasting is practiced
abu Talib
head of the Hashim family, he was Muhammad’s uncle and raised Muhammad as his parents died early in his life
Zam Zam
this well appeared in the sand after Hagar ran seven times frantically between spots when looking for water for her son Ishmael who was left their by Abraham
the son of Abraham and Hagar who was his servant and was offered to him by Sarah his wife to conceive child in an attempt to fulfill scripture; his descendents would create the Islamic religion
the belief of faith or predestination that nothing happens outside of the will of God
a mutazilite pupil with greek influences, anti-legalism, mystacism is needed to combat synics
the greeting of peace exchanged by Muslims; more fully, salam alaykum: Peace be upon you!
the concept of the right way, formalized as law and code of conduct
Siites (Shia)
the group of Muslims who initially supported the claims of ‘Ali and his descendants to the headship of the Muslim community and subsequently developed into a distinctive religious group within Islam. Among the various subgroups the most important are the Ithna‘Ashari, the Isma‘ili, and the Zaydi
is the Islamic concept of the sin of polytheism specifically, but in a more general way refers to serving anything other than the One God; i.e. wealth, lust, the ego, etc.
the Muslims who seek through the path of religious experience and spiritual discipline to acquire personal knowledge and intimacy with God
the custom or tradition of the Prophet that complements the Quran as a source for Muslim faith and practice
the term used to designate the majority group in Islam who adhere to the idea of electing the headship of the state and believe in the idea of consensus and analogy in understanding Quranic law
the first Ummah or Islamic community; the city the Muhammad and his followers fled to and then established
regarded to as the holiest place on earth for the Islamic tradition
the founder of Islam, whose revelations from the angel Gabriel created a new covenant with Allah
Cousin to Muhammad who marries Fatima his daughter and is seen as the rightful heir for the Shia
Abu Bakr
a wealthy merchant who became the first person of any significance to convert and follow Muhammad
Islamic theologist who emphasized belief and de-emphasized legalism
personification of human chracterstics to God
Five Pillars
The profession of faith in Allah (Shahadah); Prayer (Salat); The paying of alms (Zakat); Fasting (Sawm); The Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)
angel who spoke to Muhammad conveying the word of the Lord
a term used to describe those followers of Islam
a term translated to, “a place of prostration,” which means a place of formal prayer
the first dynasty of caliphs after the four rightly guided caliphs or Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali
third rightly guided caliph chosen by Umar
the calips which succeed Abu Bakr

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