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A Speaker's Guidebook


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Benefits of public speaking
Honing critical thinking and listening skills. Enhancing your career as a student. Accomplishing professional goals. Accomplishing personal goals. Exploring and sharing values. Expanding your participation in civic life.
Dyadic communication
a form of communication between two people, as in conversations.
Small group communication
involves a slamm number of people who can see nad speak directly with one another, as in a business meeting
Mass communication
occurs between a speaker an a large audience of unkown people. In mass communication the recievers of the message are not present with the speaker, or they are part of such an aimmense crowd that there can be little or no interaction between speaker and listener
Public speaking
a speaker delivers a message with a speicif purpose to an audience of people who are present during the delivery of the speech
Public speaking always includes...
a pseaker who has a reason for speaking, an audience that gives the speaker its attention, and a message that is meant to accomplish a specific purpose
Differences between public speaking and other forms of communication
oppurtunities for feedback. Level of preparation. Degree of formality
listener response to a message. In public speaking middle of low and high feedback, audience offers verbal and nonverbal cues
or sender, is the person who creates a message
organizing the message, choosing words and sentence structure and verbalizing the message. it is the physical process of delivering the message
the recipient of the source's message
the process of interpreting the message
Audience perspective
try to determine the needs, attitudes, and values of your audience before you begin speaking
is the content of the communication process: thought and ideas put into meaningful expressions
the medium through which the speaker sneds a message
Anything that interferes with the communication process between a speaker and an audience
Shared meaning
the mutual understanding of a message between speaker and audience
Rhetorical situation
includes anything that influences the speaker, the audience, the speech, the occasion, or the situation (context). Everything including past performances
Rhetorical proofs
various types of persuasive appeals
the belief the ways of one's own culture are superior to those of other cultures
the practice of oratory
The canons of rhetoric
invention, arrangement, style, memory and delivery
refers to adapting speech information to the audience in order to make your case
organizing the speech in ways that are best suited to the topic and the audience
is the specific word choices and rhetorical devices (techniques of luangage) speakers use to express their ideas in order to achieve their speech purpose
the practice of the speech until it can be artfully delivered
the vocal and nonverbal behavior you use when speaking
Speechmaking process
Select a topic. Analyze the audience. State the speech purpose. Compose a thesis statement. Develop the main points. Gather supporting materials. Seperate the speech into its major parts. Outline the speech. Consider presentation aids
Demographic characteristics
ratios of males to females, racial and ethical differences represented in the group, noticeable age variations, and proportion of the group that is from out of state or out of the country
Audience analysis
the process of gathering and analyzing information about your listeners with the explicit aim of adapting your message to the information you uncover
Specific purpose
an explicit statement, stated as a declarative sentence, of what you expect the speech to accomplish for the audience
General purpose
Inform, persuade or mark a special occasion
Thesis statement
the theme or central idea f the speech stated in the form of a single, declarative sentence
How many main points should you organize your speech around
two or three
Main points
express the key ideas and major themes of the speech
serve to introdue the topic and speaker adn to alert audience members to your specific speech purpose
restates the speech purpose and reiterates how the main points confirm it, also thank listeners for thier time and attention
Coordinate point
equal importance, parallel alignment
given less weight than the main points they support and are placed to the right of points they support
the principle of coordinationa and subordination
placement of ideas relative to thier importance to one another
Circular response
continual flow, or feedback, between speaker and listener
the conscious act of recognizing, understanding, and accurately interpreting the messages communicated by others
the physiological process of percieving sound
Selective perception
people pay attention selectively to certain messages and ignore others
Factors that influence what we listen to and what we ignore
We pay attention to what we hold to be important, we pay attention to information that touches our experiences and backgrounds, and we sort and filter new information on the basis of what we already know
Active listening
focused, purposeful listening. It is a multistep process of gathering and evaluating information
Listening distraction
anything that competes for attention that you are trying to give to something else
people who may find themselves thinking about what they, rather than the speaker, will say next
Defensive listening
usually occurs when we sense that our attitudes or opinions are being challenged
What active listeners do
set listening goals, listen for main points, and watch for the speaker's nonverbal cues
Critical thinking
the ability to evaluate claims on the basis of well-supported reasons.
What Critical thinkers do
Evaluate the evidence, analyze assumptions and biases, assess an argument' logic, resist false assumptions, overgeneralizations, either-or thinking and other fallacies in reasoning, consider multiple persepectives (even more than two) and summarize and judge
Valid generalization
supported by different types of evidence from different sources, and does not make claims beyond a reasonable point
unsupported conclusions
How to criticize or evaluate a presentation in a constructive way
Start off by saying something positive, focus on the speech, not the speaker and target your critism
the study of moral conduct- how people should act toward one another
Ethincs in public speaking
the responsibilities speakers have toward their audience and themselves, it also encompasses the responsibilities listeners have toward speakers
meaning "character". Audiences listen to and trust speakers if they demonstrate positive ethos (positive character).
Positive ethos includes
competence (demonstrated by the speaker's grasp of the subject matter), good moral character (reflected in speaker's trustworthiness, straightforwardness, and honest presentation of the message), goodwill (demonstrated by the speaker's knowledge and attitude of respect toward the audience and the particular speech
Speaker credibility
speakers are trusted if they have a sound grasp of the subject, display sound reasoning skills, are honest and unminipulative and are genuinely interested in the welfare f thier listeners
First amendment
plays a pivotal role in enforcing safeguards by guaranteeing freedom of speech
Free speech
the right to be free from unreasonable constraints on expression
Fighting words
speech that provokes people to violence
defamatory speech
Defamatory statement
one that potentially harms an individual's reputation at work or in the community
both attitudes adn beliefs are shaped by values- people's most enduring judgements about what's good and bad in life. Values are more general than attitudes or beliefs. They are more resistent to change
Terminal values
desirable ends in themselves; you can think of them as end states or states of being (a comfortable lifestyle, an exciting life)
Instrumental values
valued characteristics that people can possess (ambitious, broadminded)
feeling worthy, honored, or respected as a person
refers to incorruptibility- the ability to avoid compromise for the sake of personal expediency (slanting facts in your favor)
a combination of honesty and dependability. Includes revealing your true purpose to your audience, not using misleading, diseptive, or fasl information, and achnolowledging sources
treating people right, addressing audience members as unique human beings and refraining from rudeness and other forms of personal attack. Focus on issues rather than on personalities, allow the audience the power of rational choice, and avoid in-group and out-group distinctions
specialized terminology
Hate speech
the ultimate vahicle for promoting in-group and out-group distinctions. It is any offensive communication- verbal or nonverbal- that is directed against people's racial, ethnic, religious, gender, or other characterisitcs
Responsible public speaker considers...
the topic and purpose, evidence and reasoning, accuracy, and honest use of emotional appeals
Rule for avoiding plagerism as a public speaker
any source that requires credit in written form should be acknowledged in oral form
Common knowledge
information that is likely to be known by many people, but such information must truly be widely disseminated.
Factors that underlie the fear of addressing an audience
lack of public speaking experience, feeling different from members of the audience, and uneasiness about being the center of attention
Pre-preparation anxiety
some people feel anxious the minute they know they will be giving a speech
Preparation anxiety
when they begin to prepare for the speech
Pre-performance anxiety
when they rehearse their speech
Performance anxiety
most pronouces duringthe introduction phase of the speech
Strategies for getting started with confidence
Modify thoughts and attitudes, visualize success, use relaxation techniques, depersonalize the speech evaluation and seek pleasure in the occasion
Highly successful way to reduce nervousness and help you prepare effectively for your speech
Relaxation techniques
stress-control breathing (need to feel more movement in the stomach than in the chest), natural gestures, and freedom to walk
reflect a predisposition to respond to people, ideas, objects or events in evaluative ways. If we have a positive attitude toward reading, for example, we're likely to read
Attitudes are based on beliefs- the ways in which people percieve reality. They are our feelings about what is true. W
Difference between attitudes and beliefs
attitudes deal with the felt quality of some activity or entity ("Reading is good" or "God is good), beliefs refer to our level of confidence about the very existence or validity of something ("I believe God exists" of "I am not sure God exists")
is critical in seeing things from your listener's point of view
Target audience
those individuals within the broader audience whom you are most likely to influence in the direction you seek
are the statisitical characteristics of a given population. Age, ethnic or cultural background, socioeconomic status, religious and political affiliation, and gender
social community whose perceptions and beliefs differ significantly from yours
Individualism versus collectivism
Individualistic cultures tend to emphasize the needs of the individual rather than those of the group. In collectivist cultures personal identity, needs and desires are viewed as secondary to those of the larger group. US-indivualistic
High uncertainty versus low uncertainty
Uncertainty aviodance refers to the extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguity. High-undertainty avoidance cultures tend to structure life more rigidly and formally for thier members, while low-uncertainty avoidance cultures are more accepting of uncertainty in life and therefore allow more variation in individual behavior. US: lowest uncertainty avoidance
High power distance versus low power distance
Power distance refers to the exten to which a culture values social equality versus tradition and authority. Cultures with high levels of power distance tend to be organized along more rigidly hierarchial lines, with greater emphasis placed on honoring authority. Those with low levels of power distance place a higher value on social equality. US: a little above midpoint range
Masculine versus Feminine
The masculinity and femininity dimension refers to the degree to which a culture values traits that it associates with masculinity and with femininity. Dominant values in US weighted toward masculinity
Socioeconomic status
Income, occupation and education
Close-ended questions
designed to elicit a small range of specific answers supplied by the interviewer
Fixed alternative questions
contain a limited choice of anwers, such as yes, no or sometimes
Scale questions
measure the respondents level of agreement or disagreement
analyzing the speech setting
Size of the audience and physical setting, time and length of speech, seating capacity and arrangement, sound and lighting, the speech context (the rhetorical situation, ex: you may be thrid speaker, might preced someone more well known than you)
General speech purpose
"Why am I speaking on this topic for this particular audience and occasion?" To inform, persuade or mark a special occasion
Informative speech
to increase the audience's understanding and awareness of a topic
Persuasive speech
is to effect some degree of change in the audience
Special occasion speech
are prepared for a special occasion and for a purpose dictated by that occasion
Specific speech purpose
zeroes in more closely than the general speech purpose on the goal of the speech.
Supporting material
illustrates or clarifies a point in a speech, elaborates on an idea and substantiates or proves that a statement is correct.
brief examples
offer a single illustration of a point
Extended examples
offer multifaceted illustration of the idea, item, or event being described, therby getting the point across and reiterating it effectively
Hypothetical examples
example of what you think the outcome will be, something that could happen in the future if certain things occured
story, they tell tales, both real and imaginary, about practically anything under the sun
breif stories of interesting, humorous, or real-life incidents
firsthand findings, eyewitness accounts, and opinions by people, both lay (nonexpert) and expert
Expert testimony
includes any findings , eye witness accounts, or opinions by professionals who are trained to evaluate or report on a given topic
Lay testimony
testimony by nonexperts
represent documented occurrences, including actual events, dates, times, people involved, and places
summarized data that measure the size or magnitude of something, demonstrate trends, or show relationships
Descriptive statistics
describe things (ex. there are too many of these)
Inferential statistics
help to predict things (ex. based on this we could expect this)
Primary research
original or first-hand research, such as interviews and surveys conducted by you or the speaker
Secondary research
the vast world of information gathered by others
a face-to-face communication for the purpose of gathering information
Vague question
dont give the person being interviewed enough to go on
Leading question
encourages, if not forces, a certain response and reflec the interviewer's biases
Loaded question
phrased to reinforce the interviewer's agenda
Nuetral question
dont lead the interviewee to a desired response
Opening of interveiw
creating a positive intitial impression is critical to establishing a spirit of collaboration in the interview setting
The body of an interview
here you will pose your substantive questions
The closing of an interview
exit gracefully, check notes, give interveiwee oppurtunity to finalize his or her remarks
a searchable place, or "base," in which information is stored and deom which it can be retrieved
Library of Congress call number or Dewey decimal number
libraries organize thier books and other holdings according to these
a regularly published magazone or journal
summarize the knowledge that is found in original form elsewhere
General encyclopedias
truly encyclopedic: they attempt to cover all important subject areas of knowledge
Specialized encyclopedias
delve deeply into one subject area such as religion, science or art
or fact books, can find facts and statistics that support your topic
American Psychological Association
Search engines
index the contents of the web
Crawler-based search engines
use powerful software programs that "crawl" the Web, automatically scanning millions of documents that contain the jeywords and phrases you command them to search
pay-for-placement search engines
allows advertisers to bid on popular search terms that are relevant to their site, with the top position going to the highest bidder
Individual search engines
compile thier own databases of Web pages, ex. Google
Meta-search engines
scan a variety of individual search engines simultaneously, ex. dogpile
Specialized search engines
devoted entirely to your topic
Human directory
aka subject directory is a searchabel database of Web sites that have been submitted to the directory and then assigned by an editor to an appropriate category or categories
Hybrid search engines
combine crawler based search engine results with results from a human directory
a human directory that contains at least 100 sites that have been reviewed by an expert
library gateway
an electronic antry point into a large collection of research and reference material that have been selected and reviewed by librarians
Subject specific database (vortal)
subject specialists, including but not limited to librarians, point to specialized databases created by professors, researcher, experts, governmental agencies, buisness interests, or other subject specialists and individuals who have a deep interest in a particular field and have accumulated and complied Web links to it
Invisible Web
the portion of the web that includes pass-protected sites, documents behind firewalls, and the contents of proprietary databases
Boolean operators
words placed between the keywords in a search that specify how the keywords are related, ex. AND, OR, NOT
Supporting points
represent the supporting material or evidence you have gathered to justify the main points and lead the audience to accept the purpose of the speech
A well organized speech is characterized by:
unity, coherence, and balance
a speech exhibits unity when it contains only those points that are implied by the purpose and thesis statement
refers to clarity and logical consistency. It is organized logically, adhere to principle ofcoordination and subordination
suggests that appropriate emphasis or wieght be given to each part of the speech relative to the other parts and to the theme. Assign each main point at least two supporting points
aka conjunctions or phrases such as next, first, finally, when moving between supporting points
Restate-forecast form
the transition restates the point just convered and previews the point to be covered next
Rhetorical question
transitions can be restated as rhetorical question, or questions that do not invite actual responses. Instead, they make the audience think
Internal preview
this transition is often used in speech introductions to describe what will be covered in the body of the speech
Internal summary
draws together important ideas before proceeding to another speech point. often used in speech conclusions
Topical pattern of arrangement
When each main point of a topic is of relatively equal importance, and when these points can be presented in any order relative to the other main points without changing the message, a topical pattern of arangement (aka categorial pattern) may be the most appropriate way to arrange your main points
Chronological pattern of arrangement
aka temporal pattern, follows the natural sequential order of the main points
Spatial pattern
When the purpose of your speech is to describe or explain the physical arrangement of a place, a scene, or an object, logic suggests that the main points be arranged in order of thier physical proximity or direction relative to each other
Causal (cause-effect) pattern of arrangement
the speaker relates soemthing known to be a cause to its effects
problem-solution pattern of arrangement
main points organized to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem and then to provide justification for a proposed solution
Narrative pattern of arrangment
the speech consists of a story or a series of short stories, replete with characters, setting, and a plot
Circle pattern of arrangement
speaker develops one idea, which leads to another, which leads to another, which leads to a third and so forth until he or she arrives back at the pseech thesis
Functions of the introduction
arouse audience attention and willingness to listen, preview the topic and purpose of speech, establish bond with audience, establish the speaker's credibility to address the topic, motivate the audience to accept the speaker's goals
Functions of the conclusion
signal to the audience that the speech is coming to an end and provide closure, summarize the main points, reiterate the thesis or central idea of the speech, challenge the audience to respond (challenges audience members to use what they have learned in a way that benifits them
call to action
speaker challenges listners to act in response to the speech, see the problem in a new way, change thier beliefs about the problem, or change both their actions and their beleifs about the problem.
regional variations in expressions
Biased language
any language that relies on unfounded assumptions, negative descriptions, or stereotypes of a given group's age, class, gender, disability, and geographic, thnic, racial or religious characterisitcs
encourages a clear understanding of the speaker's message. use fewer than more words and shorter sentences.
shortened forms of the verb to be and other auxilary verbs in conjunction with pronouns (I, he, she, you) and proper nouns (names)
Concrete language
specific, tangible, and definite
Abstract language
language that is general or nonspecific...ex. old, bad, short, thing, good, late, new
Figures of speech
include similes, metaphors, and analogies
explicitly compares one thing to another, using like or as to do so. ex. he works like a dog
compares two things by describing one thing as actually being the other. ex. love is a rose
simply an extended metaphor or simile that compares un unfamiliar concept or process to a more familiar one to help the listener understand the unfamiliar one.
drawing attention to an idea by lowering its importance
Using humor, satire, or sarcasm to suggest a meaning other than the one that is actually being expressed
Making vague or indirect refernce to people, historical events, or concepts to give deeper meaning to the messahe
Using obvious exaggerations to drive home the point
the imitation of natural sounds in the word form; it adds vividness to the speech
the inadvertent use of a word or a phrase in place of one that sounds like it
Denotative meaning
of a word is its literal, or dictionary, definition.
Connotative meaning
of a word is the special association that different people bring to bear on it
the feature of verbs that indicates the subject's relationship to the action. A verb is in the active voice when the subject performs the action. A verb is in the passive voice when the subject is being acted upon or is the reciever of the action.
unnecessary words and phrases that qualify or introduce doubt into statements that should be straighforward. ex. i guess my question is...
tag questions
unnecessary questions that are appended to statements or commands. ex. it was too expensive, wasnt it. or it was too expensive, or at least i thought so
the speaker repeats a word or a phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or sentences. ex saying im going to talk about twice in sentences on after the other
repitition of the same sounds, usually consonants, in two or more neighboring words or syllables. ex. down with dope up with hope
if alliteration is poorly crafted or hackneyed it can distract from, rather than enhance, a message
the arrangement of words, phrases, or sentences ina simialr form. ex, numbering points first, second and third. state relevant dates
the speaker sets of two ideas in balanced (parallel) opposition to each other to create a powerful effect. ex. one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind
combination of three elements may be natural to a speech. ex. of the people, by the people and for the people.
Qualities of effective delivery
natural, enthusiastic, confident and direct (eye contact being one way to be direct and build a rapport with your listeners
elocutionary movement
the elocutionists regarded speechmaking as a type of performance, much like acting. delivery was empasized to such an extent that it often assumed more importance than the content of the speech. today it is the content that is seen as beign most important
Speaking from a manuscrpit
involves reading a speech verbatim-that is, from prepared written text (either on paper or ona teleprompter) that contains the entire speech, word for word.
speaking from memory
Speaking impromptu
unpracticed, spontaneous, or improvised
Speaking extemporaneously
falls between impromptu and written or memorized deliveries. You prepare well and practice in advance, giving full attention to all facets of the speech-content, arangement, and delivery alike. You speak from an outline of key words or phrases
the relative loudness of a speaker's voice while giving a speech. The volume for speeches is somewhat louder than that of normal conversation
range of sounds from high to low (or vice versa). Number of vibrations per unit of time
the rising and falling of voice pitch across phrases and sentences
Vocal fillers
uh, hmm, you know, I mean, and its like
enhance meaning by providing a type of punctuation, empahsizing point, drawing attention to a key thought, or just allowing listeners a moment to contemplate what is being said
Vocal variety
varying all elements-volume, pitch, rate and pauses
the correct formation of word sounds ex. effect stated as uh-fect is wrong
the clarity or forcefulness with which the sounds are made, regardless of whether they are pronounced correctly. ex. mumbling or lazy speech
slurring words together at a very low level of volume and pitch so that they are barely audible
Lazy speech
ex. gonna instead of going to
Aural channel
made up of vocalizations that form and accompany spoken words. include qualities of volume, pitch, rate, variety and pronounciation and articulation
refers to how something is sadi, not to what is sad
The visual channel
includes the speaker's phusical actions and appearance-facial expressions, gestures, general body movement, physical appearance, dress, and objects held
how nonverbal and verbal communication work together in a speech
nonverbal communication clarifies the meaning of verbal messages, facilitates feedback, creating a loop of communication between speaker and audience, helps establish a relationship between speaker and audience, and helps establish speaker credibility
talking head
remains steadily positioned in one place behind a microphone or a podium
presentation aids
include objects, models, pictures, graphs, charts, video, audio, and multimedia
Functions of presentation aids
help listeners process and retain information, promote interest and motivation, convey information concisely, and lend a proffesional image
any live or inanimate object. ex. snake or stone, that captures audience's attention and illustrates or emphasizes key points
three-dimensional, scale-size representation of an object
two-dimensional representations of people, places, ideas, or objects produced on an opaque backing. ex. photograps, diagrams, maps, and posters
aka schematic drawing. explains how something works or how it is contructed or operated. Simplify and clarify complicated procedures, explanations and operations
a representation of a whole or a part of an areas on a flat surface
a large, bold, two-dimensional design incorporating words, shapes, and if desires, color placed on an opaque backing. Convey brief message or point forcefully and attractively
represents numerical data in visual form
Line graph
displays on measurement, usually plotted on the horizontal axis, and units of measurement or values, which are plotted on the vertical axis. good for trends, easier to read
bar graph
bars of varying lengths to compare quantities or magnitudes
pie graph
depicts the division of the whole
shows comparisons in picture form. The pictures represent numerical units and are drawn to relate to the items being compared. ex. actual little person stands for 100 people.
visually organizes complex information into compact form
diagram that shows step-by-steo progression through a procedure, a relationship, or a process. ex. using arrows
organizational chart
illustrates the organizational structure or chain of command in an organization, It shows the interrelationships of the different positions, division, departments, and personnel ex. tree diagram
systematic grouping of data or numerical information into column form
combines several media (stills, sound, videa, text and data) into a single production. More senses evoked, the more memorable
liquid crystal diode, LCD display technology widespread. ex laptop screens, digital watches
LCD panel
connects to a computer, is a square, thin box that sits on top of an overhead projector.
LCD projector
comes with an illumination ro light source, which eliminates the need for an overhead projector
Video projector
used in large meeting rooms or auditoriums. connect to a computer and project an image as large as twenty-five feet long. Sharp, large image through three lenses (red, green, blue)

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