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AP PSYCHOLOGY EXAM CARDS: Psychologists and Their Contributions


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Frances Galton:
Maintained that personality and ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance(human traits are inherited)
Charles Darwin:
Theory of evolution, survival of the fittest-origin of the species
William Wundt:
introspection-psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience (rather than science)
John B. Watson:
Founder of behaviorism- Did the study of generalization
Little Albert:
Watson's study on the generalization of fear. Conditioning subject to be afraid
Alfred Adler:
Neo Freudian, believed that childhood social not sexual tensions are crucial for personality formation
Carl Jung:
People had conscious and unconscious awareness-two layers of unconscious archetypes-personal/collective
Gordon Allport:
Three levels of traits: 1. Cardinal trait-it is the dominant trait that characterizes your life; 2.Central trait-one common to all people; 3. Secondary trait- it surfaces in some situations and not in others
Albert Ellis:
Rational Emotive Therapy-focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behaviour and emotions
Albert Maslow:
Hierarchy of needs-Needs at the lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied. Once these needs are adequately met, the higher needs occupy the individual's attention.
Carl Rogers:
Humanistic psychology-the theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth.
B.F. Skinner:
Operant conditioning-techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behaviour in order to observe the effects of subsequent behaviour. Also Skinner Box.
Ivan Pavlov:
Classical conditioning-An unconditional stimulus naturally elicits a reflexive behaviour called an unconditional response. But with repeated pairings with a neutral stimulus, the neutral stimulus will elicit the response. Dog Salivation etc.
Noam Chomsky:
Disagreed with Skinner and said there an infinite number of sentences in a language. He said that humans have an inborn native ability to develop language.
Jean Piaget:
Four-stage theory of cognitive development. 1. Sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, 4. formal operational He said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation & accommodation
Erik Erikson:
People evolve through 8 stages over the life span. Each stage marked by psychological crisis that involves confronting "who am I"
Lawrence Kohlberg:
His theory states there are 3 levels of moral reasoning and each level can be divided into 2 stages. 1. Pre-conventional, 2. conventional, His theory focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behaviour.
Carol Gilligan:
She maintained that Kolbergs work was developed only observing boys and overlooked potential differences between the habitual moral judgments of men and women
James Lange Theory:
It asserts that the perception of emotion is our awareness of our physiological response to emotion arousing stimuli, e.g. sight of coming car-pounding heart-fear
Cannon-Bard Theory:
An emotion-arousing stimulus triggers cognitive body responses simultaneously. E.g. arousal and emotion are simultaneous
Phineas Gage:
First person to have a frontal lobotomy. Gave psychology information on part of the brain that is involved with emotions reasoning etc.
Hans Eysenck:
Personality is determined to a large extent by genes. He used the terms Extroversion/Introversion
S. Schacter:
To experience emotions 1. must be physically aroused 2. must cognitively label arousal (know the emotion before you experience it)
Mary Cover Jones:
Systemic desensitization
Benjamin Whorf:
His hypothesis is that language determines the way we think
Robert Sternberg:
Triarchic theory of intelligence. 1. academic problem-solving intelligence 2. practical intelligence 3. creative intelligence
Howard Gardner:
Theory of multiple intelligences
Albert Bandura:
Observational Learning-it allows you to profit immediately from the mistakes and successes of others. His experiment had adult models punching BoBo dolls and then observed children whom watched this exhibit many of the same behaviours.
E.L. Thorndike:
Law of effect-(the relationship between behaviour and its consequences) the principle that behaviour followed by favourable consequences becomes more likely. Behaviour followed by less likely consequences becomes less likely
Alfred Binet:
general I.Q. tests. A Frenchman designed a test that would identify slow learners in need of remedial help. It was not that valuable in America as it was too culture bound.
Lewis Term an:
Revised Binet's I.Q. test and established norms for American children
David Weschler:
he established an intelligence test especially for adults. It became the WAIS, Weschler Intelligence Test for Adults.
Charles Spearman:
He found that specific mental talents were highly correlated. He concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a common core which he labeled "g", for general ability
H. Rorschach:
He developed one of the first projective tests, the Inkblot test. The subject reads the inkblots and projects to the observer aspects of their personality. It uses 10 standarized inkblots
Philip Zimbardo:
Conducted the famous Stanford Prison experiment. It was conducted to study the power of social roles to influence people's behaviour. It proved people's behaviour depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play.
David Rosenhan:
He with a number of people from different walks of life conducted a hospital experiment to test the diagnosis of hospitals make on new patients. He also wanted to see the impact on behaviour on being a patient. He proved that once you are diagnosed with a disorder, your care would not be very good in a mental hospital setting.
Simon Asch:
Study on conformity. His experiment had a subject unaware of his situation, test to see if he would conform if all the members of the group gave an incorrect answer.
Stanley Milgram:
Conducted a study on obedience when he had a subject shock a patient to the extent that they would be seriously injuring the patient.
Kurt Lewin:
A German refugee who escaped Nazi oppression. He designed an experiment to investigate the effects of different leadership styles on group functions. He wanted to find out if people were more productive under 3 different leadership styles. 1. autocratic 2. laizssez-faire 3. democratic. This is the study when he had the children do activities under the 3 conditions. The democratic style proved to be the most productive as was expected.
Harry Harlow:
Studied theory of attachment in infant Rhesus monkeys.
William Sheldon:
The theory that linked personality to physique on the grounds that both are governed by genetic endowment. Endomorphic- (large), Mesomorphic- (average), Ectomorphic- (skinny)
Sigmund Freud:
Psychoanalytical theory that focuses on the unconscious- Id-Ego-Superego

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