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pathology reproductive


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Benign prostatic hyperplasia: who gets BPH?
common in men > 50 y/o
Benign prostatic hyperplasia: what might cause it?
may be due to age-related increase in estradiol with possible sensitization of the prostate to the growth promoting effects of DHT.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia: findings
nodular enlargement of the periurethral (lateral and middle) lobes of the prostate gland, compressing the urethra to a vertical slit.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia: symptoms
increased frequency of urination, nocturia, difficulty in starting and stopping the stream of urine, dysuria.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia: complications
may lead to distention and hypertrophy of the bladder, hydronephrosis, UTIs
Benign prostatic hyperplasia: premalignant lesion?
Hydatidiform mole: What is it?
pathologic ovum (empty egg - ovum with no DNA) resulting in a cystic swelling of chorionic villi and proliferation of chorionic epithelium (trophoblast).
Hydatidiform mole: Most common precursor of what?
Hydatidiform mole: what happens to B-hCG?
Hydatidiform mole: findings
honeycombed uterus, cluster of grapes appearance
Hydatidiform mole: genotype
complete mole is 46,xx and is completely paternal in origin (no maternal chromosomes); no associated fetus. PARTial mole is made up of 3 or more PARTS (triploid or tetraploid)
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia-eclampsia): what is the triad?
hypertension, proteinuria, edema
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia-eclampsia): what makes it eclampsia?
addition of seizures to the triad
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia-eclampsia): what % of pregnant women?
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia-eclampsia): when does it present?
20 weeks gestation to 6 weeks postpartum
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia-eclampsia): what increases the likelihood?
preexisting hypertension, diabetes, chronic renal disease, autoimmune disorders
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia-eclampsia): what is HELLP syndrome?
Hemolysis, Elevated LFTs, Low Platelets
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia-eclampsia): Clinical features
headache, blurred vision, abdominal pain, edema of face and extremeties, altered mentation, hyperreflexia
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia-eclampsia): Lab findings
thrombocytopenia, hyperuricemia
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia-eclampsia): Treatment
Delivery of fetus as soon as viable. Otherwise, bedrest, salt restriction, monitoring and treatment of hypertension
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia-eclampsia): Treatment for eclampsia (a medical emergency)
IV Magnesium sulfate, diazepam
Abruptio placentae
premature separation of the placenta. Painful uterine bleeding (usually 3rd trimester). Fetal death. May be associated with DIC
Placenta accreta
defective decidual layer allows placenta to attach directly to myometrium. Predisposed by prior C-section or inflamation. May have massive hemorrhage after delivery.
Placenta previa
attachment of the placenta to lower uterine segment. May occlude cervical os. Painless bleeding in any trimester.
Ectopic pregnancy
most often in fallopian tubes, predisposed by salpingitis (PID).
Cervical Pathology: Dysplasia and carcinoma in situ
Disordered epithelial growth; begins at basal layer and extends outward. Classified as CIN 1, CIN 2, or CIN 3 (carcinoma in situ), depending on extent of dysplasia. Associated with HPV. May progress to invasive carcinoma.
Cervical Pathology: Invasive carcinoma
Often squamous cell carcinoma. Pap smears can catch cervical dysplasia (koilocytes) before it progresses to invasive carcinoma.
most common tumor in female (hint - has increased incidence in blacks)? Do they progress to malignancy?
leiomyoma; no.
endometriosis - most common site?
endometriosis in the myometrium = ?
most common gyn malignancy? (hint - causes vaginal bleeding in a postmenopausal women)
endometrial carcinoma
Leiomyosarcoma: does it arise de novo or from leiomyoma?
de novo
PCOS (Stein-Leventhal syndrome): Major clinical manifestations include: amenorrhea, infertility, obesity, and ----?
the four types of ovarian cysts
follicular, corpus luteum, theca-lutein, chocolate
blood containing cyst from ovarian endometriosis
chocolate cyst
cyst that is associated with choriocarcinoma and moles
theca-lutein cyst
cyst defined by hemorrhage into persistent corpus luteum
corpus luteum cyst
cyst defined by distention of unruptured graafian follicle
follicular cyst
that which is analagous to male seminoma
produces alpha-fetoprotein
yolk sac tumor
associated with elevated hCG
monodermal teratoma made up of only thyroid tissue
struma ovarii
most common germ cell tumor of ovary (90%)
True or False: immature teratomas are benign
False. Mature ("dermoid cyst") ones are benign, immature ones are aggressively malignant
bilateral non germ cell tumor with fallopian tube like epithelium
serous cystadenoma
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (intraperitoneal accumulation of mucinous material) may be a consequence of which ovarian non germ cell tumor?
mucinous cystadenocarcinoma
tumor resembling bladder epithelium
brenner tumor
triad of ovarian fibroma, ascites, and hydrothorax = ?
Meigs' syndrome
Pathology term for the small follicles filled with eosinophilic secretions that are seen in granulosa cell tumors
Call-Exner bodies
Which one of the following does NOT put an individual at increased risk for breast disease? Gender, age, early 1st menarche, late 1st pregnancy, late menopause, family history, fibroadenoma/non-hyperplastic cysts
fibroadenoma/hyperplastic cysts
Eczematous patches on the nipple w/ corresponding large cell's with clear halo on histology are indicative of --?
Paget's disease & most likely an underlying ductal carcinoma
Fibrosis, cystic, sclerosing, & epithelial hyperplasia are all histologic subtypes of what breast disease?
Fibrocystic disease (note: no increase risk of developing carcinoma)
Most common breast tumor in women < 25 years of age? is it malignant or a precursor to malignancy?
Fibroadenoma. No, no.
A benign tumor of the breast that presents with nipple discharge
Intraductal papilloma
Are malignant breast tumors more common pre or post menopause

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