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AP Psychology Study- Biological Basis of Behavior


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Measures subtle changes in brian electrical activity through electrodes placed on the head
EEG (Electroencephalogram)
Generate cross-sectional images of the brain through an X-ray like technique
CAT scans (Computerized Axial Tomography)
Similar to CAT scans, but genrates more highly detailed pictures of the brain. Only capture "snapshots of the brain"
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Techniques that allow scientists to view the brain as it is working.
Functional MRI and PET scans (Positron Emission Tomography)
Nervous System composed of the brain and spinal cord
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Nervous System comprised of all other nerves in the body. Can be divided into somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Central processing center for thoughts, motivations, and emotions
Nerve Cells
Strands of interconnected neurons, respnsible for conveying information to and from the brain and PNS
Nerves sending information TO the brain
Nerves conveying information FROM the brain
Quick and involuntary repsonses to environmental stimuli
Responsible for voluntary movement of large skeltal muscles.
Somatic nervous system
Controls the nonskeletal or smooth muscles such as those of the heart and digestive tract. Can be further divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
Autonomic Nervous system
Associated with processes the burn energy- preparaion tof fight of flight reactions.
Sympathetic nervous system
System responsible for conserving energy, calms down the body after the fight is over
Parasympathetic Nervous system
3 Regions that the brain is divided into
Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain
Contains the limbic system, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex
Area of the brain involved in learning, emotion, and memory. Comprises the hippocampus, amygdala, and septum
Limbic System
Involved in learning and memory formation. Damage does not eliminate existing memories, but prevents the formation of new memories. (Anterograde amnesia)
Implicated in anger, seems to relate more to agression
Implicated in anger, seems to relate more to fear
Controls temperature and water balance of the body as well as the autonomic nervous system (maintains homeostasis)
Gateway for most of the sensory input to the brain. Relays input to regions of cerebral cortex through neural projections (Relay station)
Wrinkled outer layer of the brian, involved in higher cognitive functions, such as thinking, planning, launguage use, and fine motor control. Receives sensory input from the thalamus
Cerebral Cortex
Location of the reticular activating system
Network of neurons responsible for conciousness, attention, sleeping, and wakefulness
Reticular activating system
Midbrain, hindbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus form the ___________, the junction between the brain and the spinal cord.
Brain Stem
Made up of the cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and pons
Controls muscle tone and balance
Controls heart rate, swallowing, breathing, and digestion
Medulla Oblongata
Way station, passing neural information from one brain area to another
Information transformation that occurs on the same side of the body and brain
Hemisphere typically specialized for lanuage processing, first noticed by Paul Broca
Left Hemisphere
Brain damage to the left hemispere may result in _______, loss of speaking ability.
Performed split brain experiments in which the corpus collusum is cut.
Roger Sperry
Lobe responsible for higher level thought and reasoning; contains primary motor cortez
Frontal lobe
Lobe that handles somatosensory information, home of primary somatosensory cortex. Receives information about temperature, pressure, texture, and pain
Parietal Lobe
Lobe that handles auditory input and is critical for processing speech and appreciating music
Temporal Lobe
Lobe that processes visual input
Occipital Lobe
Inability to organize movement
Difficulty in processing sensory input
Inability to read
Receive input from other neurons through receptors on their surface
Long, tubelike structure that reponds to input from dendrites and soma

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