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Med-Surg Nursing - 11


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compulsive, uncontrollable dependence on a substance, habit, or practice to such a degree that cessation causes severe emotional, mental, or physiologic reactions
addictive behaviors
behaviors associated with maintaining an addiction
brain reward system
an area in the mesolimbic system of the brain that creates a sensation of pleasure for certain behaviors necessary for survival, such as eating and sexual behavior
subjective need for a substance, usually experienced after decreased use or abstinence
the need for an increased dose of a drug for a therapeutic effect that occurs when an individual dependent on alcohol or other CNS depressants is drug free and receives other CNS depressants
cue-induced craving
craving that occurs in the presence of people, places, or things that they have previously associated with drug taking
reliance on a substance that has reached the level that absence of it will cause an impairment in function
process of removing the substance and its effects from the individual's body
Korsakoff's psychosis
a form of amnesia characterized by loss of short-term memory and an inability to learn
motivational interviewing
a nonconfrontational interpersonal communication technique used to motivate patients to change behavior
natural substances, such as morphine and codeine, which are directly derived from opium
includes opiates in addition to the many semisynthetic and synthetic narcotic agents used as analgesics
physiologic dependence
an altered physiologic state resulting from prolonged substance use in which regular use is necessary to prevent withdrawal
a synergistic action in which the effect of two drugs given simultaneously is greater than the effect of the drugs given separately
psychologic dependence
a compulsive need to experience a pleasurable response from a substance
return to substance abuse during abstinence
substance abuse
overindulgence in and dependence on a substance that has a negative impact on the psychologic, physiologic, and social functioning of an individual; is synonymous with chemical dependence
substance dependence
dependence on a substance that has a negative impact on psychologic, physiologic, and social functioning of an individual
substance misuse
use of a drug for purposes other than those intended
decreased effect of a substance that results from repeated exposure
transtheoretical model of change
stages of behavior change that include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination
Wernicke's encephalopathy
an inflammatory, hemorrhagic, degenerative condition of the brain resulting from a deficiency of thiamine
constellation of physiologic and psychologic responses that occur when there is abrupt cessation or reduced intake of a substance on which an individual is dependent or when the effect is counteracted by a specific antagonist

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