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religion test 1


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an outward sighn of invisible grace; baptism, confirmation, the eucharist, holy orders, holy matrimony, reconciliation, extreme unction
second century critic of christianity and author of True Doctrine, preserved in origen's Against _______
greek word for "witness", one who has died for the sake of the faith
in the age of persecution, those who refused to deny their faith under pressure from Roman authorities
the physical remains of a saint, usually body parts but sometimes artifacts, often thought to have miraculous powers
bishop of carthage (249-58), he wrote extensively in defense of the unity of the church and importance of bishops
"one who is sent". A title given originally to the disciples sent out by Jesus to preach the gospel. Paul claimed to be one
sacrament of forgiveness involving contrition, confession, the performance of an act of punishment, and absolution
author of 2 Apologies, he is noted for being among the first christian thinkers to point to common features linking christianity and greek philosophies
Justin Martyr
resident of North Africa; one of the first great latin theologians noted particularly for apologetic writings
alexandrian theologian, especially concerned with establishing links between christianity and greek philosophy
influential leader of the alexandrian school of theology, he called for the allegorical interpretation of scripture and made extensive use of ideas from platonism and neoplatonism
rigorous denial of the body for the purpose of spiritual growth
bible scholar, polemecist, and translator of the vulgate, the standard latin version of the bible from the fifth century to the present
christian writers up to isidor of seville whose texts are widely regarded as having a special authority
church fathers
belief other than what is considered doctrinally correct or orthodox
a prescribed form of public worship, usually centering on the celebration of the eucharist
a cache of ancient texts, many of them gnostic, discovered in 1945. many are examples of gnostic christianity
nag hammadi texts
origianlly from asia minor, he bacame bishop of lyons in southern france about 178. his Against Heresies defends orthodox christianity against gnosticism and other heresies
movement dating to the second and early third centuries and base on the prophecies of ______ and other ecstatic prophets
christian apologist, biblical scholar, and historian. best known for his Church History which coversthe period from christ to his own time
bishop of antioch and one of antiquity's most famous martyrs, he is noted for his letters to the churches of asia minor in which he defended the reality of christ's physical suffering
Ignatius of Antioch
group of early christian writers traditionally held to he disciples of the apostles and the authors of certain texts that, though not included in the new testament canon, were thought to preserve the apostolic faith
apostolic fathers
"hearers" or "students" seeking baptism before receiving the sacrament
three fourth century theologians from cappadocia in asia minor who made important contributions to theology in gerneral and to the eastern orthodox tradition in particular
cappadocian fathers (basil of caesarea, gregory of nazianzus, and gregory of nyssa)
bishop of constantinople, theologian and one of the most influential preachers in antiquity
John Chrysostom
latin translation of the bible executed almost entirely by st jerome
formal expression of praise within a liturgy
members of a frankish dynasty founded in 751 by pepin and including charlemagne
also known as Wynfrith and "apostle of germany", was a missionary who worked to convert germans in the early middle ages
forged document, composed in the second half of the eighth century that claimed to be constantines account of his conversion and gift to the pope of the western half of the roman empire
donation of constantine
frankish king and, later, emperor who extended his rule over most of western europe
the political, social, and economic system that prevailed in most of europe in the middle ages, in which lords granted the use of land to lesser lords, or vassals, in exchange for their military service
in feudal system, ceremonial act in which a lord gave his vassal a symbol of the land to be conferred in exchange for his declaration of loyalty and military support. in the church, referred to similar act of bishop receiving ring and crosier
person who held land under the feudal system and in return owed loyalty and assistance to a feudal lord
“It must, therefore, be admitted that we have a will free to do both evil and good; but, in doing evil, one is free of justice and the slave of sin; on the other hand, in the matter of good no one is free unless he be freed by Him who said: “If the S
“Then I woke up realizing that I would be contending not with the wild animals but with the devil himself. I knew however, that I would win. I have recorded the events which occurred up to the day before the contest. Let anyone who wishes to record the
“If then a bishop or deacon, a widow, a virgin or a teacher, or even a martyr, has lapsed from the Rule of Faith, must we conclude that heresy possesses the truth? Do we test the faith by persons or persons by the faith? No one is wise, no one is faith
“Being relieved of my anxiety and concern for the infant, I immediately regained my strength. Suddenly the prison became my palace, and I loved being there rather than any other place.”
“Accordingly we give the name “the wisdom of this world” to all philosophy that holds wrong opinions, which according to the Scriptures is being brought to nought (1 Cor. 2:6). We do not call foolishness a good thing without qualification, but only
“What has Jerusalem to do with Athens, the Church with the Academy, the Christian with the heretic?
“Moreover, it is in harmony with the Scripture to say that it is far better to accept doctrines with reason and wisdom than with mere faith.”
“I was saying these things and weeping in the most bitter contrition of my heart, when suddenly I heard the voice of a boy or a girl – I know not which – coming from the neighboring house, chanting over and over again, ‘Pick it up, read it; pick
“Again they set up churches in every city, from which the other churches afterwards borrowed the transmission of the faith and the seeds of doctrine and continue to borrow them every day, in order to become churches. By this they are themselves reckone
“Though hast prompted him, that he should delight to praise thee, for thou hast made us for thyself and restless is our heart until it comes to rest in thee.”
“For it was her desire, O my God, that I should acknowledge thee as my Father rather than him.”
“But, fool that I was, I foamed in my wickedness as the sea and, forsaking thee, followed the rushing of my own tide, and burst out of all thy bounds. But I did not escape thy scourges. For what mortal can do so?”
“And when God is said to ‘walk in the paradise in the cool of the day’ and Adam to hide himself behind a tree, I do not think anyone will doubt that these are figurative expressions which indicate certain mysteries through a semblance of history an
“I am undertaking nothing less than the task of defending the glorious City of God against those who prefer their own gods to its Founder.”

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