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American Diversity 111 Final - Prof. Hollywood - ISU


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Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
Halted Chinese immigration to the United States. It was the first immigration law based on race and only merchants were allowed in.
13th Amendment
Constitutional amendment adopted in 1865 that irrevocably abolished slavery throughout the U.S.
14th Amendment
Guaranteed rights of citizenship to former slaves in words, similar to those of the Civil Rights Act of 1866.
15th Amendment
Constitutional amendment ratified in 1870, which prohibited states from discriminating in voting privledges on the basis of race.
Plessy V. Ferguson of (1896)
U.S Supreme Court decision supporting the legality of Jim Crow laws that permitted or required "seperate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites. Plessy was on 1/8th black who sat in white seat to challenge existing laws.
Dawes Act
Law passed in 1887 meant to encourage adoption of white norms among Indians; it boke up tribal holdings into small farms for Indian families, with the remainder sold to whites. Indians stripped of millions in land.
House Un-American Activites Committee (HUAC)
Formed in 1938 to investigate subversives in the government and holders of racial ideas. Best known investigations were of hollywood notables and of former State Department official Alger Hiss. It was abolished in 1975.
Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
U.S Supreme Court decision that struck down racial segregation in public education and declared "seperate but equal" unconstitutional.
Ellis Island
Reception center in the New York Harbor through which most European immigrants to America were processed from 1892-1954.
Dredd Scott V. Sandford (1887)
U.S Supreme Court decision in which Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled that congress could not prohibit slavery in the territories,it violates the 5th amendment rights of slaveholders, and that no black person could be a citizen of the U.S.
Booker T. Washington
Aferican American political leader, educator, and author. Born into Slavery, freed, and began to read and write. Famous speech: "Atlanta Address of 1895" ~drew attention of politicians as a spokesperson for Blacks. Helped raise money to start schools in South.
W.E.B Dubois
"Radical" who was first black to graduate with a Ph.D from Harvard. Biggest Accomplishment: Niagara Movement, which strived for "manhood sufferage" and was the precursor of the NAACP.
Indian Reorganization Act(1934)
1. Ended the Dawes Act. 2. Allowed Indians to govern themselves. Tribes could vote on this. Indians allowed to create their own constitution, but needed govt. approval.
Conservative ideal. 4 main arguments for reform: women are more susceptible to getting sick if they work, long hrs are harmful to family life and ability to reproduce, women should be healthy to create a genetically superior race.
Held a radical idea to move away from gender roles completely. They wanted to end the idea of womens roles. Tactics included: rallys, boycotts,and hunger strikes.
Emmett Till
Black teenager who whistled at a white woman. Later he was burtally lynched and the suspects were aquitted.
Rosa Parks
A black seamstress who refused to surrender her seat on a city bus to a white rider. Parks arrest started a year long bus boycott which was the beginning of a big Civil Rights movement. (Montgomery, AL.)
Joseph R McCarthy
Senator, who created a long list of people he suspected of being involved in communists activites. After a senate investigation proved him wrong, he was censored by the senate. Died 3yrs later. McCarthyism became know as character assasination, guilt by association, and abuse of power.
A Philip Randolph
July 1941 called for March on Washington which demanded access to defense employment, end of segregation, and a national anti-lynching law. Pres. Roosevelt issues Ex. Order 8802 before the march to stop it. In 1963, Randolph organized the march again and this time King gave his "I have a Dream" speech.
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by Pres. Lincoln, it freed the slaves in areas under Confederate control as of Jan 1, 1863. It also let blacks join the Union Army.
Angel Island
Reception center for Chinese immigrants to America, who were not offically welcome because of the Chinese Exclusion Act.
Massachusetts 54th
First black military unit organized in the northern states. Most were free black from Massachusetts and Pennsylvania.
Native American Code Talkers
WWI - Comanche and Choctaw, WWII - Navajo. These code talkers allowed the U.S to communicate without exposing info to opposing cryptographers.

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