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Chapter 8, psych


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Stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA)
The time between the onset of one stimulus and the onset of another
Visual search
looking for a target in a display with distracting elements
Feature search
search for a target defined by a single attribute such as a salient color or orientation
-doesn't matter how many distractions there are, will pop out
-can process some attributes in parallel
Inefficient searches:
1. serial self-terminating search
2. limited-capacity parallel processing
Serial self-terminating search
Search from item to item, ending whdn the target is found
-when target is absent, slope is twice as steep as when target is present
Limited-capadicy parallel process
Can process all the items in each display at once, but as the number of items increases, processing resources are spread thin
Conjunction Search
Search for a target defined by the presence of 2 or more attributes
Feature integration theory
1. Preattentive stage: parallel processors analyze basic features across the entire visual field all at once.
2. Attentive stage- item by item
Binding problem
The challenge of tying different attributes of visual stimuli, which are handled by different brain circuits, to appropriate objects so we perceive a unified object.
Illusory conjuction
-An erroneous combination of two feature
Guided search theory
-A model of visual search that holds that early (preattentive) visual processes can guide the subsequent deployment of attention
Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSPV)
An experimental procedure in which a stream of stimuli appear at one location at a rapid rate
Attentional blink
Difficulty responding if there is a only a small interval between first and second target
- ability to visually attend is temporarilly knocked out
Attention and singe cells
1. response enhancement: a neuron responding to an attending stimulus might just give a bigger response
2. Sharper tuning: might cause neruons to respond more precisely
3. Might change preference of neurons
Attention could enhance the processing of a specific type of stimulus...
-fusiform face area: area in extrastriate cortex that responds to faces
-parahippocampal place area: regions of cortex in the temporal lobe of humans that appears to respond with particular strenght to images of places
In visual attention, the inability to attend to or respond to stimuli in the contralesional visual field. Also, neglect of 1/2 of the body or objects.
Inability to percieve a stimulus in the presence of another stimulus.
Balint Syndrome
- bilateral lesions
1. spatila localization abilities reduced
2. Don't move eyes very much
3. Behave as if they can see one object at a time (simultagnosia)
Change blindness
The failure to notice a change between 2 scenes. If the change does not alter the gust or meaning of the scene, quite large changes can pass unnoticed.
Covert attentional shifts
A shift of attention in teh absence of corresponding movements of the eyes
Overt Attentional shift
A shift of attention accompanied by corresponding movements of the eyes
Spatial layout
Overall structure of the scene (enclosed, open, rough, smooth) (global)

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