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Chemistry: Bonds

Terms

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valence electrons
electrons in the highest occupies energy level of an elements atom
electrons involved in chemical reactions are
valence electrons
Ionic bond is made of a
-a metal and a non-metal
ionic bonds are caused by
the transfer of electrons
characteristics of ionic bonds
-high boil and melting point
-can conduct electricity when disolved or molten
-usually crystalline solid
characteristics of metalic bonds
-they have free floating electrons
-good conductors
-malleable
metals are made of
closely packed cations that are surrounded by mobile valence electorns
alloy
mixture composed of 2 or more elements- one is a metal
single covalent bond
one pair of electrons are shared
covalent bond is
shared electrons b/t nonmetals
double and triple convalent bonds
two/three shared pairs of electrons
coordinate covalent bonds
happens when the more electronegative atom donates electrons b/c it makes the compound more stable
diamagnetic
substance that is weakly repelled by a magnetic force
paramagnetic
substance that is strongly attracted to a magnetic field; these substances have molecules containing one or more unpaired electrons
convalent bond
-non-metals
-sharing electrons
diatomic molecules are the only ones that
have equal sharing of electrons
all bonds have
ionic and covalent properties
molecular orbitals
atomic orbitlas overlap when 2 atoms combine
bonding orbitals
molecular orbitals whose energy is lower than that of the atomic orbital from which it was formed
sigma bond
formed when 2 atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital (they overlap) that is symmetrical along axis connecting the 2 atomic nucli
pi bonds
bonding electrons are found in sausage shaped regions above and below the nucli of the bonded atoms
VSEPR Theory
valence shell electron repulsion theory
-electrons paris repel bonded pairs
-molecules adjust their shapes so that valence electron pairs are as far apart as possible
methane
tetrahedral
ammonia
pyramidal
water
bent
carbon dioxide
linear
ionic bonds are b/t a
metal and non-metal
ionic melt at a
high temp
ionics are a ___ conductor
good when disolved or molten
ionics do what with their electrons
transfer electrons
ionics state is
solid--crystalline
covalents are b/t a
metal a non-metal
covalent have a __ melting
low melting point
covalent are __ conductors
poor conductors
covalent do what with their electrons
share electrons
covalent state is
solid, liquid, gas
metalis is b/t
metal and metal
metalic have a __ melting
high to low melting point
metalics are __ conductors
good conductors
metalics electrons are
free floating electrons
metalics state is
solid--crystalline
polar are
nonsymmetrical and have a + and - charge
nonpolar are
symmetrical
ammonium carbonate
NH[4](CO[3[)[2]
pi bond
bonding electrons form susage shaped regions above and below the atomic mucli
CO2
linear

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