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Women's Studies Final


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First Wave Feminism
First-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States. It primarily focused on gaining the right of women's suffrage. The term, "first-wave," was coined retroactively after the term second-wave feminism began to be used to describe a newer feminist movement.
Second Wave Feminism
Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the mid- 1960s. It led to changes in the areas of education, work, sports, journalism and legislation. It also led to cultural shifts concerning ideas about heterosexual relationships, motherhood, and fatherhood.
Third Wave Feminism
Third-wave feminism is a feminist movement that began in the early 1990s. While second-wave feminism largely focused on the inclusion of women in traditionally male-dominated areas, third-wave feminism seeks to challenge and expand common definitions of gender and sexuality.
Liberal Feminism
Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged.
Radical Feminism
Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views women's oppression (or patriarchy) as the basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. It seeks to challenge this arrangement by rejecting standard gender roles and male oppression. The term Militant feminism is a pejorative term which is often associated, usually by detractors, with radical feminism. Typically, radical feminism is seen by people other than adherents as a form of identity politics.
Simone de Beauvior
The Second Sex (French: Le Deuxième Sexe, 1949) is the best known work of Simone de Beauvoir and a seminal text in twentieth-century feminism. It is a work on the treatment of women throughout history and often regarded as a major feminist work. In it, she argues that women throughout history have been defined as the "other" sex, an aberration from the "normal" male sex. It helped lead the way of second-wave feminism.
Patriarchy (from Greek: patria meaning father and arché meaning rule) is the anthropological term used to define the sociological condition where male members of a society tend to predominate in positions of power; with the more powerful the position, the more likely it is that a male will hold that position. The term patriarchy is also used in systems of ranking male leadership in certain hierarchical churches or religious bodies.
Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, "man, male", χεντρον, kentron, "center") is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of one's view of the world and its culture and history.
Social Stratification
Social stratification is a sociological term for the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes, and strata within a society. While these hierarchies are not universal to all societies, they are the norm among state-level cultures (as distinguished from hunter-gatherers or other social arrangements).
Gender egalitarianism stresses equality regardless of gender.
In the culture of the Indian subcontinent a hijra (sometimes hijira or hijda) is a physically male or intersex person who is considered a member of "the third sex." They usually refer to themselves as female at the language level; many of them are castrated. Hijras trace their historical roots to Hinduism where they mirrored androgynous deities, as well as to the royal courts of Islamic rulers.
Womanism is a commonly used term that was coined to mean specifically African American Feminism, but it has developed into a more encompassing version of feminism that crosses lines of race and class.
Hernstein and Murray
The Bell Curve is a controversial, best-selling 1994 book by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray exploring the role of intelligence in American life. The authors became notorious for the book's discussion of race and intelligence in Chapters 13 and 14.

Named for the bell-shaped normal distribution of IQ scores, the book cites the rise of a "cognitive elite" having a significantly higher than average chance of succeeding in life.
Hypodescent is the practice of determining the lineage of a child of mixed race ancestry by assigning the child the race of his or her more socially subordinate parent
Barry Hewlett
Intimate Fathers examines infant care among one of the last remaining hunter-gatherer populations on earth—the Aka pygmies of central Africa. It focuses on fifteen fathers and their infants less than eighteen months of age, using qualitative and quantitative research methods to determine levels of father-infant interaction and to assess the ideology, attitudes, and values associated with Aka parenting.
Leora Tanenbaum's Slut! is a groundbreaking account of the lives of young women who stand up to the destructive power of namecalling, written by one of the rising young talents of journalism today. Slut! seamlessly weaves together three narrative threads: powerful oral histories of girls and women who tell us their stories and how they finally overcame sexual labelling, Leora's own story, and her cogent analysis of the underlying problem of sexual stereotyping.
The glorification of thinness in Western culture, and concomitantly women’s conflicted relationships with their bodies and food, has been well documented in sociological and anthropological literature. In Feeding Desire, Rebecca Popenoe presents the reader with a refreshingly different perspective, one in which fatness is considered the ideal for women.
Janice Boddy
Based on nearly two years of ethnographic fieldwork in a Muslim village in northern Sudan, Wombs and Alien Spirits explores the zâr cult, the most widely practiced traditional healing cult in Africa. Adherents of the cult are usually women with marital or fertility problems, who are possessed by spirits very different from their own proscribed roles as mothers. Through the woman, the spirit makes demands upon her husband and family and makes provocative comments on village issues, such as the increasing influence of formal Islam or encroaching Western economic domination. In accommodating the spirits, the women are able metaphorically to reformulate everyday discourse to portray consciousness of their own subordination.
Belgian anthropologist van Gennep coined the term in his book book, "Rites of Passage" in 1909 (translated into English in 1960). van Gennep suggested that "rites of passage" generally comprised of three components:

1. Separation from the familiar
2. Transition from old state to new state
3. Reintegration into original social structure
Liquid Life, his 1992 study of abortion in Japan. Widely cited, this book studied how the religious matrix of Japan facilitated a perspective on the morality of abortion that differs in significant and potentially instructive ways from the way in which this issue has been publically debated within North America.
Robin Lakoff
Robin Tolmach Lakoff is a feminist and Professor of linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley. Her most famous work is Language and Woman's Place (1975), which introduced many ideas about women's language into the field of sociolinguistics that are now commonplace, such as women's greater use of tag questions as compared to men's speech. Further research on tag questions has cast some doubt on this proposition though.
Deborah Tannen
Deborah Frances Tannen (born June 7, 1945) is a professor of sociolinguistics at Georgetown University. She is the author of several popular books about the way people in social situations talk to each other. By studying these interactions, she attempts to help others to understand them and so get along better in relationships.
Nancy Chodorow
Chodorow sees gender differences as compromise formations of the Oedipal complex. She begins with Freud’s assertion that the individual is born bisexual and that the child's mother is its first sexual object. Chodorow, drawing on the work of Karen Horney and Melanie Klein, notes that the child forms its ego in reaction to the dominating figure of the mother. The male child forms this sense of independent agency easily, identifying with the agency and freedom of the father and emulating his possessive interest in the mother/wife. This task is not as simple for the female child. The mother identifies with her more strongly, and the daughter attempts to make the father, her new love object, but is stymied in her ego formation by the intense bond with mom. Where male children typically experience love as a dyadic relationship, daughters are caught in a libidinal triangle where the ego is pulled between love for the father, the love of the mother, and concern and worry over the relationship of the father to the mother. For Chodorow, the contrast between the dyadic and triadic first love experiences explains the social construction of gender roles, the universal degradation of women in culture, cross-cultural patterns in male behavior, and marital strain in the West after Second Wave feminism. Women enter marriage sexually immature. She is not prepared to engage in a monogamous relationship like the male who has only experienced such relationships. The women takes less of an interest in sex and the result of sex – children. Her ambivalence towards sex eventually drives the male away. She devotes her energies to the children once she does reach sexual maturity.
Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group.
Exogamy is the custom of marrying outside a specified group of people to which one belongs. In addition to blood relatives, marriage to members of a specific totem or other group may be forbidden.
The term matrifocal, or its synonym, matricentric, simply means mother or female centered and can be understood to designate a domestic form in which only a mother and her dependent children are present or significant. Adult males in the capacity of husbands and fathers or of brothers and mothers brothers are either absent or, in some formulations, present but marginal to family life. The term should not be confused with matrilocality, where husbands are present in their wives households or with natalocality, where brothers assume male domestic responsibilities.
Bride price
Bride service
# dowry - Valuables given to the husband from the wife's family at the time of the marriage ceremony.
# bride price - Work or services done by a groom for his wife's family instead of paying a bride price. Bride service is usually for a set period of time, often years. It is a common practice in societies that have little material wealth and strong rules requiring sharing that prevent the accumulation of wealth. Bride price as also been called "progeny price."
# bride service - Husband works for his future in-laws for several months or years in exchange for being allowed to marry their daughter.
bilateral kinship
bilateral - The decent traced and kinship groups assigned through both male and female lines.
Hypergamy refers to a system of practice of selecting a spouse of higher socio-economic status than oneself. Specifically, it refers to a widespread tendency amongst human cultures for females to seek or be encouraged to pursue male suitors that are comparatively older, wealthier or otherwise privileged than themselves.
Hegemony is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. Hegemony controls the ways that ideas become "naturalized" in a process that informs notions of common sense.
Sororal Polygyny
Marrying your syster
Fictive Kin
People who are considered part of the family but not really blood family members
People you are related to by blood
People who marry into the family
if you go through a painful rite of passage with a group, then you form very close ties with this particular group
Little God Jizo (shrine)
When a woman has miscarried or a child dies young, a one word prayer to Jizo and do these series of rites and praying for fetuses or children that have dies. There should be a decres in Jizo shrines w/ modern medical science, but there isn't because the Japanese include aborted fetuses to be included.

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