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Psych Prep Key Terms- Learning


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Skinner, Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike
Pavlov: stimulus-response conditioning, reflexes, US/CS/UR/CR

Watson: Little Albert, stimulus generalization

Thorndike: Law of Effect, bxs are emitted randomly and then are rewarded or punished, later deleted punishment

Skinner: operant or instrumental conditioning, shaping bx with reward and punishment
classical v. operant conditioning
classical conditioning: associative learning

operant conditioning: shaping bx with rewards and punishment
unconditioned v. conditioned stimulus/response
unconditioned stim/resp: inborn, automatic, require no learning, and are generally the same for all members of a species

conditioned stim/resp: results from experience and learning and generally varies significantly among members of a species
backward v. standard conditioning
backward conditioning: the US precedes the NS (neutral stimulus)- no learning or conditioning occurs

standard conditioning: CS precedes the US by a short interval and overlaps into the presentation of the US as if it is signaling the onset of the US
stimulus (mediated) generalization v. response generalization
stimulus (mediated) generalization: subject automatically generalizes from a CS to other similar neutral stimuli (classical) or subject emits target bx in presence of stimuli similar to discriminative stimulus (operant)

response generalization: subject performs a behavior that is similar to the one previously reinforced (operant only)
classical v. operant extinction
classical extinction: repeatedly presentation of the CS without the US

operant extinction: reinforcement for a previously reinforced bx is stopped
spontaneous recovery v. response burst
spontaneous recovery: during classical extinction trials, following a rest period, the CR to the CS briefly reappears

response burst: during operant extinction trials, the bx increases before decreasing
habituation v. satiation
habituation: the subject becomes accustomed to and less responsive to a US after repeated exposure and therefore no longer elicits the UR (classical)

satiation: when a reinforcer loses its value through overuse (operant)
stimulus discrimination and experimental neurosis
stimulus discrimination: subject learns to discriminate between two similar neutral stimuli b/c one has been paired w/ the US while the other is not

experimental neurosis: if the stimulus discriminations are made too difficult, the subject (animal) will experience experimental neurosis (e.g. agitation, barking, howling)
higher order conditioning
CS is paired with a NS that is unrelated to the CS and the NS becomes a new CS. It is impossible to condition beyond 3 levels. Each new CS will elicit a weaker response.
reinforcement v. punishment
reinforcement: increases a bx by bringing the subject into a more desirable state

punishment: decreases a behavior by bringing the subject into a less desirable state
positive and negative reinforcement v. positive and negative punishment
positive: something is added

negative: something is taken away

reinforcement: bx increases

punishment: bx decreases
continuous v. intermittent reinforcement
continuous reinforcement: reinforcing every occurence of a bx, best schedule for acquisition of new bx's

intermittent reinforcement: only reinforcing some but not all occurences of a bx
schedules of reinforcement: VR/FR/VI/FI- operant strength during acquisition, extinction, scalloping
VR: reinforcement after an unpredictable # of responses
FR: reinforcement after a fixed # of responses
VI: reinforcement after an unpredictable interval of time
FI: reinforcement after a fixed interval of time

operant strength during acquisition: VR, FR, VI, FI
resistence to extinction: VR, FR, VI, FI
scalloping: the fixed schedules result in pauses after reinforcement
superstitious behavior v. pseudoconditioning
superstitious behavior: results from accidental reinforcement (operant)

pseudoconditioning: results from accidental pairing of an NS with a US (classical)
chaining v. shaping
chaining: each bx in a complex sequence of bx's is mildly reinforced and serves as a cue to perform the next bx in the chain with major reinforcement at the end of the chain

shaping: teaching a subject to emit a desired behavior by providing reinforcement on an ongoing basis as the subject gets closer and closer to the desired bx
thinning v. fading
thinning: changing from a continuous schedule of reinforcement to an intermittent schedule

fading: a gradual reduction in prompting (cueing a subject about what bx to perform)
behavioral contrast
two bx's are reinforced and then only one of the bx's is reinforced- the one being reinforced increases and the other decreases
Premack principle
a high frequency bx is used to reinforce a low frequency bx
reciprocal determinism
an interactive triad of the person, his/her bx, and the environment regulate the individual's bx

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