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Psych Prep Key Terms- Memory


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sensory memory v. STM v. LTM
sensory memory: storing sensory input as a visual or auditory image, 1/2-4 sec.

STM: up to 30 sec., primary (passive) and working (manipulates)

LTM: recent (2 weeks), remote (2 yrs. or more)
rehearsal v. chunking
strategies to increase ability to remember

rehearsal: deliberate repetition

chunking: transforming separate items into meaningful units
iconic v. echoic
iconic: visual images

echoic: sounds
recent v. remote memory
two types of long-term memory

recent memory: 2 weeks

remote memory: 2 yrs. or more
Zeigarnik effect v. redintegration
Zeigarnik effect: tendency to remember and unconsciously work on incomplete tasks

redintegration: remembering when something like a smell from childhood unlocks a rapid chain of memories
semantic v. episodic memory
semantic memory: recall of the meaning of words, facts, and how they relate to each other

episodic memory: recall of autobiographical events or when and where a specific even occurred
procedural v. declarative memory
procedural (implicit): recollection of skills, physcial operations, and procedures that occurs automatically w/o conscious awareness

declarative (explicit): conscious recollection of information or experience, includes semantic and episodic
long term potentiation
the physiological process by which short-term memories become long-term memories resulting from repeated stimulation of a synapse thru rehearsal that leads to chemical and structural changes in the dendrite of the receiving neuron whereby this change results in increased sensitivity of the neuron to stimulation
retroactive v. proactive inhibition
retroactive inhibition (interference): when recently learned material interferes with the ability to recall material learned in the past

proactive inhibition (inhibition): when previously learned material interferes with the ability to learn or recall current material
mnemonic devices
method of loci: involves forming a visual image of items on a list and putting each in a specific place as one mentally walks thru a room

pegword system: involves memorizing a set of 10 visual images that can be pegs on which to hang ideas

word association: involves forming words or sentences with the first letter of the items being memorized

substitute word system: involves breaking down the words into parts and substituting familiar words that can be visualized

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