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Anatomy and Phys. final


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What is diastole?
heart at rest
What is systole?
heart contracting
When the AV valves are open is the ventricle diastole or systole?
diastole-at rest
What does the vena cava do?
bring blood back to the right atrium
What is between the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle?
semilunar valves
What causes AV valves to open and close?
What happens when the right atrium has pressure?
the AV valves open and the semilunar valves close
What is a murmur?
fluttering of the valves-mostly AV valves
What happens when the ventricles have pressure?
the semilunar valves open and the AV valves close because of the ventricle systole
What happens when the heart is in systole?
it becomes so tight that blood cannot go through
What are the main functions of the circulatory system?
Transport and distribute essential substances to the tissues.
Remove metabolic byproducts.
Adjustment of oxygen and nutrient supply in different physiologic states.
Regulation of body temperature.
Humoral communication.
What is the apex, base and shape of the heart?
the apex is the top, the base is the bottom and the shape of the heart is a cone.
Which is thinner the atria or ventricles and what are auricles?
atria, auricles are the leaf like structures around the atria
What is the Os Cardis?
soft tissue bone near the valves
Where are the superior and inferior vena cavas?
superior is cranial;bottom, and the inferior is caudal; top
During systole is there blood flow?
no because the heart tightens
What happens when the ventricle relaxes?
the lood tries to come back and the semi lunar valves close and the coronary arters opena and the blood goes to the heart
What are two layers that make up the pericardium? what is it and what does it contain?
visceral layer underneath the parietal layer, membrane that surrounds the heart and it contains a fluid that reduces friction
What are the junctions between the cardiac muscle cells called?
intercalated disks-electrical continuity
Describe cardiac cells?
uninucleated, branch and resist tearing (interdiagitate), no connective tissue covering and not innervated (does not supply with nerves)
What is functional syncitium and which muscle does it affect?
cardiac muscle, what happens to one cell happens to all; they are connected and able to spread over large areas
Where does normal heart beat originate?
in the sino atrial node (SA node)
What is the SA node called? and what is it?
the primary pacemaker; it is a collection of cells in the right atrium which spontaneously depolarize
What happens to reach threshold?
sodium slowly leaks in and potassium comes out until it is reached to cause the cells to spontaneously depolarize
What is the secondary pacemaker of the heart? What is the third?
the AV node, the purkinje
What is the bundle of His?
purkinje fibers
Where is the heart rate modified?
SA node
What is the function of the purkinje fibers?
to protect against premature atrial depolarizations at slow heart rates
What is the function of the AV node?
protects against premature depolarizations at high heart rate
What is an electrocardiographic lead?
recording electrode or a pair of recording electrodes at a specified location.
What kind of lining do all vessels have?
an endothelium lining
What lining do aorta, arteries and arterioles have?
elastic connective tissue and smooth muscle
What lining do veins and the vena cava have?
elastic connective tissue, some smooth muscle and fibrous connective tissue
What is the lining of a capillary?
What is the lining of a venule?
endothelium and some fibrous connective tissue
What is fenestrated?
leaky or with holes
What does it mean when it is said that veins and the vena cava are capacitance vessels?
they can swell very easily
Does blood pressure increase or decrease to the right atrium?
Does velocity increase or decrease with a decrease in cross sectional area?
What percent does systematic circulation of blood take place in the veins and venules, the capillaries and the aorta, arteries and arterioles?
67% in veins and venules,
5% in capillaries
11% in aorta, arteries and arterioles
What percent of blood volume takes place in systematic circulation and what percent of blood volume takes place in pulmonary circulation?
What percent does pulmonary circulation of blood take place in arteries, capillaries, venules and veins and ventricles?
arteries, capillaries, venules and veins-4%
When is the lowest velocity of blood?
as it goes through the capillary bed
What is velocity?
rate of displacement of fluid per time (cm/sec)
What is flow?
is volume diplacement per time
What causes flow?
pressure differences
When cross sectional area increases velocity increases or decreases?
What is poiseuille's equation?
flow of fluid in cylindrical tubes, laminar flow
What is the equation in poiseuille's equation?
flow= (P1-P2)*(radius)^4 * pie
----------------- ---
length*viscosity 8
What is flow directly related to?
pressure difference between two points (radius)
What is flow indirectly related to?
length (friction), viscosity
If pressure goes down, does flow go down or up? If viscosity or length go up does flow go down or up?
down, down
The greater the pressure difference the (faster or slower) the flow?
What is polycythemia? and how does it affect flow?
will affect viscosity, and flow will go down
What is pulse pressure?
systolic blood pressure-diastolic blood pressure
What is pulse pressure due to?
stroke volume, long filling time with slow heart rate in athelete
What is congestive heart failure or hemorrhage due to?
low stroke volume and low pulse pressure
What is mean blood pressure?
1/3 pulse pressure + diastolic blood pressure
What happens during microcirculation?
at the capillaries there is low blood pressure and flow rate so this is the ideal time for nutrients and wastes to be exchange, there is a major tubing system in the capillaries
How many miles of capillaries does a human have?
60,000 miles which are most closed
What is the importance of the single layer of endothelium on blood vessels?
allows water and solutes to mmove but not cells and proteins
What is colloid osmotic pressure?
within capillary due to large proteins and molecules; primarily albumin
What is hydrostatic pressure?
pressure generate by the heart
Is there more or less fluid pushed out then taken back?
How much fluid is pushed out of the arteriol end and how much fluid is pulled back in at the venous end?
12 mmHg, and -8mmHg
What is Edema?
if there aren't any lymphatics there is a build up of interstitial fluid that is not being put back intot he blood.
What is the function of the lymphatics?
absorbs lipids in the small intestines or animals and recovers water and proteins from the blood from the interstitial fluid
How much flows through the lymph?
11 mL per hours
What happens because of Edema?
there is excess Interstitial fluid,
increase in capillary permeability, increase in capillary blood pressure, decrese colloid osmotic pressure, block lymph drainage
When lymph drainage is blocked what is the outcome?
elephantitis and nematodes
What happens to circulation if you have diabetes mellitus?
have poor circulation and go blind in the retina
How does the sympathetic NS affect blood flow?
it will clamp down on blood vessels and decrease blood flow
How does autoregulation effect blood flow in the brain and lung?
brain; increase hydrogen ions and blood flow
lung-decreased blood flow, picks up O2 and delivers CO2
What are baroreceptors?
stretch receptors on the arch of the aorta, carotid sinuses
What is cardiac output?
heart rate + stroke volume-how much each ventricle ejects in one beat of the heart
mL per minq
What is the benefit of excercise?
your stroke volume increases
What is a shunt?
detour or path to keep blood away from the lungs
What are the two shunts and describe them?
foramen ovae-between the right and left atria-closes after first week of life,
and the ductus arteriorosus-from pulmonary artery

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