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alcohol toxicity, herbal agents, drug names


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Ethylene glycol is converted to ------- ------ by alcohol dehydrogenase. This product can lead to acidosis and nephrotoxicity.
oxalic acid.
Alcohol dehyrogenase also converts methanol to formaldehyde and formic acid, which can cause severe ----- and damage to the -------.
acidosis. retina
Ethanol competes with ethylene glycol and methanol (if present) for alcohol dehydrogenase. ADH action on EtOH produces -------.
What symptoms does acetaldehyde cause?
nausea, vomiting, headache, hypotension
Acetaldehyde itself can be metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase to ----- -----.
acetic acid.
Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase is inhibited by what drug?
Give the clinical uses for the following herbal agents.
echinacea clinical use and toxicities
common cold; GI distress, dizziness, headache
CNS and cardiovascular stimulation; arrhythmias, stroke and seizures at high doses.
feverfew clinical use and toxicities
migraine; gi distress, mouth ulcers, antiplatelet actions
GI distress, anxiety, insomnia, headache, and antiplatelet actions
kava clinical use and toxicities
chronic anxiety; gi distress, sedation, ataxia, hepatotoxicity, phototoxicity, dermatotoxicity
milk thistle clinical use and toxicities
viral hepatitis, loose stools
saw palmetto clinical use and toxicities
benign prostatic hyperplasia; gi distress, dec libido, hypertension
St. John's wort clinical use and toxicities
mild to moderate depression; gi distress and phototoxicity, serotonin syndrome with SSRI's; inhibits P450 syndrome
dehyroepiandrosterone clinical use and toxicities
symptomatic improvement in females with SLE or AIDS; androgenization (premenopausal), estrogenic (postmenopausal), feminization (young men)
Melatonin clinical use and toxicities
jet lag, insomnia; sedation, suppresses midcycle LH, hypoprolactinemia
Give the toxicities for the following herbal agents.
GI distress, dizziness, and headache
GI distress, mouth ulcers, antiplatelet actions
GI distress, sedation, ataxia, hepatotoxicity, phototoxicity, dermatotoxicity
milk thistle
loose stools
saw palmetto
GI distress, decreased libido, hypertension
St. John's wort
GI distress and phototoxicity; serotonin syndrome with SSRIs
Androgenization (premenopausal women), estrogenic effects (postmenopausal), feminization (young men)
Sedation, suppresses midcycle LH, hypoprolactinemia
inhalational general anesthetic. Halothane
benzodiazepine. Diazepam
phenothiazine (neuroleptic, antiemetic). Chlorpromazine
antifungal. Ketoconazole
barbiturate. Phenobarbital
local anesthetic. Lidocaine
penicillin. Methicillin
antibiotic, protein synthesis inhibitor. Tetracycline
tricyclic antidepressant. Imipramine
protease inhibitor. Saquinavir
beta antagonist. Propranolol
butyrophenone (neuroleptic). Haloperidol
cardiac glycoside (inotropic agent). Digoxin
methylxanthine. Theophylline
ACE inhibitor. Captopril
beta-2 agonist. Albuterol
H2 antagonist. Cimetidine
tricyclic antidepressant. Amitriptyline
pituitary hormone. Somatotropin
alpha-1 antagonist. Prazosin

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