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Neurosciences 1.12 -- Meninges, Ventricular System, and CSF


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two layers of dura mater
Dura mater consists of two layers: an external (endosteal) and an internal (meningeal) layer.
Endosteal Layer of dura
(1) serves as periosteum of inner skull

(2) rich in blood vessels and nerves

(3) provides sheaths for the CNs as they exit skull
what are the four septa of the Meningeal Layer of dura
Meningeal Layer – sends four processes or septa internally and these septa divided the cranial cavity into incomplete compartments

(1) falx cerebri

(2) tentorium cerebelli – forms the rooft over the posterior cranial fossa and thus supports the occipital lobes of the cerebral cortex, while it covers the cerebellum

(3) diaphragma sellae – a circular horizontal structure which forms the dural roof of the sellae turcica and which is perforated by the stalk of the pituitary

(4) falx cerebelli
what is the chief component of the vascular supply to the cerebral dura?
middle meningeal artery
describe the innervation of the cerebral dura
(1) supratentorial portion -- trigeminal

(2) infratentorial portion -- meningeal branches of vagus and first three cervical Ns
arachnoid + pia
which two foramena establish communication between the subarachnoid space and the ventricular compartments
(1) foramen of Magendie (roof of 4th ventricle)

(2) foramina of Luschka (lateral recesses of 4th ventricle)
arachnoid granulations
prolongations through the inner layer of dura into the superior sagittal sinus; through these is where CSF passes into venous blood
two layers of pia mater
Two layers: inner intimal layer (membranous) and an outer epipial layer (loose collagen fibers)
what structure connects the third and fourth ventricles?
the aqueduct of Sylvius
desc the anatomical boundaries of the lateral ventricles
anterior horn -- is roofed by the corpus callosum, medial wall is septum pellucidum, floor and lateral wall formed by head of caudate nucleus

body of the lateral ventricle – roof corpus callosum, medial wall septum pellucidum, floor contains portions of fornix, choroid plexus, lateral dorsal surface of thalamus, lateral wall is caudate nucleus and stria terminalis

posterior horn – within occipital lobe; roof corpus callosum, medial wall calcar avis

inferior horn – enters temporal lobe; roof cortical white matter, lateral wall is stria terminalis and tail of caudate, floor and medial wall is hippocampus
third ventricle definition and boundaries
a thin space in the midline of the diencephalon, bounded by the thalami and hypothalami
fourth ventricle definition and boundaries
midline cavity whose floor is formed by the substance of the medulla and pons and whose roof is formed by the cerebellum
subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured aneurysm
bacterial or fungal meningitis
Lowered glucose in CSF
bacterial or fungal meningitis
Elevated gamma gluobulins most likely IgG forming oligoclonal bands (in CSF)
multiple sclerosis

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