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Chapter 3 Organizing Data and information


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anything that carries an electric signal and interfaces between a sending device and receiving device.
competitive local exhange carrier
company allowed to compete with LECS like a wireless service provider.
computer network
communicatiosn media, devices and software connecting 2 or more people to computer systems
centralized processing
processing alternative where all processing occurs in one location
decentralized processing
alternative where devices are placed at various remote locations
distributed processing
alternative where computer is at remote locations but is connected to each other through a network.
terminal to host
application and batabase reside on a host computer and the user interacts with a dumb terminal.
file server
app and db reside on one host computer
computer platfofrms are dedicated to special functions like database mgt, printing
wide area network (WAN)
network that ties large geographical regions
communications software
provides a number of important functions in a network such as error checking and data securty
Network operating system
software contolling computer sytems to allow communication
Network Management software
software tha enavles mgr on networkded desktop to monitor computers, shared hardware and scan for viruses
communications protocol
rules that control telecomm connections
collection of interconnected netweorks that freely exchange information
started in 69 by US DEpt of Defense so it could link DOD and military research contracters as well as expeiment reliable networking
internet protocol IP
communicatoin standard that enables traffic to be routed from one network to another
tranmissions control protocol
trasport layer protocol that is used in combo with IP by most internet applications
the internets high speed long distance telecom links
uniform resource locator
assigned address on internet for each computer
serial line Ip
comm protocol that transmits packets over phone lines
Point to point protocol (PPP)
comm protocol that transmits packets over phone lines
World Wide Web
Thousands of independantly owned companies tha towrk together as one in an internet service
tools connecting data on web pages so you can axxess topics in any order you want
HTML tags
codes that let your browser know how to format the text
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
standard page description language for webpages
object oriented markup language that allows small programs to be embedded in the HTML doc
Web services
standards and tools that streamlime and simplify communications
content streaming
transfer multiple media files over the internet so the stream of voice and picutesdisplays without a break (in real time)
tool that dearches the web for info products and prices
internal corporate network that is built with the iternet and WWW standards and is used by employees to gain acces to corporate information
network linknig resouces of companies intranet with suppliers customers and partners
virtual provate network
secure connection between two points across the internet
VPNs transfer infomarion by encapsulating traffic in IP packets over the internet
text file that the internet compant can place on a hard disk of the computer to track the user movemnt
digital signature
encryption technique that is used to verify the identitiy of a message sender to process online financial transactions
a device that sits between an internal network and the internet limiting access in and of a network baded on accesss policies
Database Management system (DBMS)
a group of programs that manipulate the database and provide an interface between the database and its users, other application programs
database administrator
skilled professional who directs activitts related to an organizations database
basic block of ino
name, number or combination of character describing an aspect of a businness/object/activity
collectionof related data fields
a collection of related records
hierarchy of data
bits characters fields records files databases
class of people places and things where data is collected sotred and manipulated
characteristic of an entity
data item
specific value of an attribute
field or set of fields in a record used to identify that record
primary key
the field or set of fields that uniquely defines the record
traditoinal approach to mgt
separate data files are created and stored for each application program
planned sata redundancy
organizing data so that certain entities are combined, summary totals are carried in data and not calculated from elemental data. Some are repeated in more than one entitty
data model
diagram of data entites
enterprise data modelling
done at the level of the enterprise
entity relationship diagramm
models that use basic graphic symbols to show the organization of and relationships in data
relational model
data described where elements are in 2D tables called relations that are the logical equivalent of files
allowable vaues for data attributes
deleting rows accroding to criteria
eliminating columns
joinging two or more tables
links two or mre tables
flat file
no relationship between recrods it is use dot store and manipulate a table or file
the entire database
file with description of subset of database and identifies what users can view it
data definition language
collection of instructions and commands to deifne and describe relationships in the database
concurrency control
dealing when two or more people need ot access the same record in a database at the same time
Data manipulation language
commands used to manipulate data in a database
data warehouse
colects business information from many sources in thte enterprse and coves all aspects of a companies processes products and customers
data mart
subset of the data warehouse
predictive analysis
data mining that combines historical data with guess about future conditions to predict outcomes in the future.
data mining
information anaylsis tool involving automated discovery of patterns and relations in a warehouse or mart
business intelligence BI
gathering enough of the right informatoin in a timely manner and a useable form so that it can have a posiice impact on the business strategy
compeititve intelligence
legal and ethical collection of informatoin about competitors
steps an organization takes to protect information that is sought by hostile intelligence gatherers
knowledge management
capturing companies collective expertise and distributing it to make a big payoff
distributed database
data that can be spread out across smaller databases through telecomm
replicated database
database that holds duplicate set of frequently used data
online analytical processing
software that allows users to explore data from a number of differnet perspectives
object oriented database
stores sata and processing instructions
onject oriented database management system
group of programs that manipulate object oriented database and provide the user interface and connections to other applications
object relational DB managment system
a database system tha tcan manipulate audio, visual and graphical data.
decision making phase
the first part in problem solving including three stages: intelligence design and choice
intelligence stage
the first stage in decision making. potential problems are identified
design stage
the second stage in decison making where alternate solutions to problem are developed
choice stage
the 3rd part of the decision process wher eyo must select a course of action
implementation stage
the fourth stage of decision process where the solution is put into effect
monitoring stage
the final stage of the decision process where decision makers evaluate the implementation
programmed decisions
the descicison made using a rule procedure or quantitative method
nonprogrammed decisions
deal with unusual/exceptional situations
optimization model
process to find the best solution and the best one that wil help the organization meet its goals.
satisficing model
a model tha twill find a good but not necessarily the best problem solution
the commonly accepted guidelines that uslaly find a good solution (rule of thumb)
scheduled reports
the reports that are produced periodically or on a schedule
key indicator reprt
a summary of the previous days critical activities typically available at the beginning of each workday
dmand reports
the reports that are developed to give certain info at a persons request
exception reports
automatically produced when a situation is unusual or requires mansaggement action
drill down reports
the reports that provide increasingly detaied data about a situation
financial MIS
an informations system that provides finiancial informaton to all financial managers within an org
marketing mis
an information system that supports managerial activities in product development distribution pricing and sales forecasting
human resource mis
an information system that is concerned with the activities related to employees and potential employees of an organization ,
personnell mis
accounting mis
an information system that provides aggregate information on accounts payable, accounts receivable and many other applications
geographic information system
a computer system that can assemble store manipulate and display geographic information identified according to their locations
ad hoc DSS
a dss concerned with situations or decision that come up only a few times in an organizations life
instituational dss
a dss that handles situations or decisions that occur more than once, usuall several times a year
highly structureed problems
problems that are straightforward and requite known facts and relationships
semi or unstructured problems
more compex problems wher the data relationships are not always clear the data may be in a variety of formats and the data is often difficult to manipulate
dialogue manager
the user interdacethat alloes decision makers to easily access and manipulate the DSS and to use common business terms and phrases
model base
a part of a dss that procides decison makers access to a variety of models and addists them in decision making
model management software MMS
the sortware tha tcoordinates the use of the models in the dss
group support system
the software apploication that consists of most of the elements in a DSS plus software to provide effective support in gourp decision making settings. It is also called group decisoin support system or computerized collaborativ e work system
delphi approach
decisoin makers are geographically dispersed o envcourage diversity amoung group members and foster creativity
group consensus
group members reach a unanimous decision
nominal group technique
encourages feedback from individual group members and the final decision is made by voting
decison room
the room that supports decision making
virtual workgroups
teams of people that are located around the world working on common projects
executive support system
a specialixed dss that includes all hardware software data and procedures and people to assist senior execs with the org,
strategic planning
determining long term objectives by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the company and predicting future trends

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