This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Psych 223 Ch.12


undefined, object
copy deck
social cognition
the thinking people display about the thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviours of themselves and other people
one\'s perceptions of one\'s unique attributes or traits
Proprioceptive feedback
sensory information from the muscles, tendons, and joints that help one to locate the position of one\'s body (or body parts) in space.
personal agency
recognition that one can be the cause of an event
ability to recognize oneself in a mirror or photograph
present self
early self-representation in which 2 and 3 year olds recognize current representation of self but are unaware that past self-representations or self-relevant events have implications for the present
extended self
more mature self-representation, emerging between ages 3 1/2 and 5 years, in which children are able to integrate past, current, and unknown future self-representations into a notion of a self that endures over time
categorical self
person\'s classification of the self along socially significant dimensions such as age and sex
public self (or me)
those aspects of self that others can see or infer
private self (or I)
those inner, or subjective, aspects of self that are known only to the individual and are not available for public scruitiny
theory of mind
understanding that people are cognitive beings with mental states (beliefs, motives, feelings, and intentions) that are not always accessible to others and that often guide their behaviour
desire theory
early theory of mind in which a person\'s actions are thought to be a reflection o her or his desires rather than other mental states such as belief
belief-desire theory
theory of mind that develops between ages 3 and 4; the child now realizes that both beliefs and desires may determine behaviour and that people act on their beliefs, even if they are inaccurate
false-belief task
method of assessing one\'s understanding that people can hold inaccurate beliefs that can influence their conduct, wrong as these beliefs may be
false-self behaviour
acting in ways that do not reflect one\'s true self or the \"true me\"
individualistic society
society that values personalism and individual accomplishments, which often take precedence over group goals. These societies tend to emphasize ways in which individuals differ from each other
collectivist (or communal) society
society that values cooperative interdependence, social harmony, and adherence to group norms. These societies generally hold that the group\'s well being is more important than that of the individual.
one\'s evaluation of one\'s worth as a person based on assessment of the qualities that make up the self-concept
relational self-worth
feelings of self-esteem within a particular relationship context (e.g., with parents, with classmate); may differ across relationship contexts
social comparison
process of defining and evaluating the self by comparing oneself with other people
achievement motivation
willingness to strive to succeed at challenging tasks and to meet high standards of accomplishment
mastery motivation
inborn motive to explore, understand, and control one\'s environment
intrinsic achievement orientation
a desire to achieve in order to satisfy one\'s personal needs for competence or mastery (as opposed to achieving for external incentives such as grades).
authoritative parenting
flexible, democratic style of parenting in which warm, accepting parents provide guidance and control while allowing the child some say in deciding how best to meet challenges and obligations
achievement attributes
causal explanations that one provides for his or her successes and failures
achievement expectancy
how well (or poorly) one expects to perform should she try to achieve a particular objective
incremental view of ability
belief that one\'s ability can be improved through increased effort and practice
entity view of ability
belief that one\'s ability is a highly stable trait that is not influenced much by effort or practice
mastery orientation
tendency to persist at challenging tasks because of a belief that one has high ability and that earlier failures can can be overcome by trying harder
learned-helplessness orientation
tendency to give up or stop trying after failing because these failures have been attributed to a lack of ability that one can do little about
attribution retraining
therapeutic intervention in which \"helpless\" children are persuaded to attribute failures to their lack of effort rather than a lack of ability
person praise
praise focusing on desirable personality traits such as intelligence; this praise fosters performance goals in achievement contexts
performance goal
state of affairs in which one\'s primary objective in achievement context is to display one\'s competencies (or to avoid looking competent)
process-oriented praise
praise of effort expended to formulate good ideas and effective problem-solving strategies; this praise fosters learning goals in achievement contexts
learning goal
state of affairs in which one\'s primary objective in an achievement context is to increase one\'s skills or abilities
identity crisis
Erikson\'s term for the undertainty and discomfort that adolescents experience when they become confused about their present and future roles in life
identity diffusion
identity status characterizing individuals who are not questioning who they are and have not yet committed themselves to an identity
identity status characterizing individuals who have prematurely committed themselves to occupations or ideologies without really thinking about these commitments
identity status characterizing individuals who are currently experiencing an identity crisis and are actively exploring occupational and ideological positions in which to invest themselves
identity achievement
identity status characterizing individuals who have carefully considered identity issues and have made firm commitments to an occupation and ideologies
behavioural comparisons phase
tendency to form impressions of others by comparing and contrasting their overt behaviours
psychological constructs phase
tendency to base one\'s impressions of others on the stable traits that these individuals are presumed to have
psychological comparison phase
tendency to form impressions of others by comparing and contrasting these individuals on abstract psychological dimensions
role taking
ablity to assume another person\'s perspective and understand his or her thoughts, feelings, and behaviours

Deck Info