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Psych 223 Ch.11


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Primary (or basic) emotions
set of emotions present at birth or emerging early in the first year that some theorists believe to be biologically programmed`
Secondary (or complex) emotions
self-conscious or self-evaluative emotions that emerge in the second year and depend, in part, on cognitive development.
Emotional display rules
culturally defined rules specifying which emotions should or should not be expressed under which circumstances
Social referencing
use of others\' emotional expressions to infer the meaning of otherwise ambiguous situations
ability to experience the same emotions that someone else is experiencing.
phase of indiscriminate attachment
period between 6 weeks and 6 -7 months of age where infants prefer social to nonsocial stimulation and are likely to protest when any adult puts them down or leaves them alone.
phase of specific attachement
period between 7 and 9 months of age when infants are attached to one close companion (usually the mother).
secure base
infant\'s use of a caregiver as a base from which to explore the environment and to which to return for emotional support
phase of multiple attachements
period when infants form attachements to companions other than their primary attachement object
secondary reinforcer
initially neutral stimulus that acquires reinforcement value by virtue of its repeated association with other reinforcing stimuli
to form a relationship...
infants must have object permenance
innate or instinctual form of learning in which the young of certain species follow and become attached to moving objects (usually their mother)
preadapted characteristics
innate attribute that is a product of evolution and serves some function that increases the chances of survival for the individual and the species
kewpie doll effect
notion that infantile facial features are perceived as cute and lovable and elicit favourable responses from others
stranger anxiety
wary or fretful reaction that infants and toddlers often display when approached by an unfamiliar person
separation anxiety
wary or fretful reaction that infants and toddlers often display when separated from the people to whom they are attached
strange situation
series of eight separation and reunion episodes to which infants are exposed in order to determine the quality fo their attachements.
secure attachement
infant-caregiver bond in which the child welcomes contact with a close companion and uses this person as a secure base from which to explore the environment
resistant attachment
insecure infant-caregiver bond characterized by strong separation protest and a tendency of the child to avoid or ignore the caregiver.
avoidant attachment
insecure infant-caregiver bond characterized by little separation protest and a tendency of the child to avoid or ignore the caregiver.
disorganized/disoriented attachement
insecure infant-caregiver bond, characterized by the infant\'s dazed appearance on reunion or a tendency to first seek and then abruptly avoid the caregiver
attachment Q-set (AQS)
alternative method of assessing attachment security that is based on observing the child\'s attachment-related behaviours at home; can be used with infants, toddlers, and preschool children.
Japanese concept; refers to an infant\'s feeling of total dependence on his or her mother and the presumption of mother\'s love and indulgence
caregiving hypothesis
Ainsworth\'s notion that the type of attachment that an infant develops with a particular caregiver depends primarily on the kind of caregiving he or she has received from that person
tempermental hypothesis
Kagan\'s view that the strange situation measures individual differences in infants temperaments rather than the quality of their attachments
Internal working models
cognitive representation of self, others, and relationships that infants construct from their interactions with caregivers
reactive attachment disorder
inability to form secure attachment bonds with other people; characterizes many victims of early social deprivation and/or abuse.
maternal deprivation hypthesis
notion that socially deprived infants develop abnormally because they have failed to establish attachments to a primary caregiver
social situation hypothesis
notion that socially deprived infants develop abnormally because they have had little contact with companions who respond contingently to their social overtures.
learned hypothesis
failure to lean how to respond appropriately in a situation because of previous exposure to uncontrollable events in the same or similar situations
emotional self-regulation
strategies for managing emotions or adjusting emotional arousal to an appropriate level of intensity
person\'s characteristic modes of responding emotionally and behaviourally to environmental events, including such attributes as activity level, irritability, fearfulness, and sociability
behavioural inhibition
temperamental attribute reflecting one\'s tendency to withdraw from unfamiliar people or situations
easy temperament
temperamental profile in which the child quickly establishes regular routines, is generally good-natured, and adapts easily to novelty.
difficult temperament
temperamental profile in which the child is irregular in daily routines and adapts slowly to new experiences, often responding negatively and intensely
slow-to-warm-up temperament
temperamental profile in which the child is inactive and moody and displays mild passive resistance to new routines and experiences
\"goodness of fit\" model
Thomas and Chess\'s notion that development is likely to be optimized when parents\' child-rearing practices are sensitively adapted to the child\'s temperamental characteristics
close emotional relationship between two people, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity
synchronized routines
generally harmonious interactions between two people where they adjust their behaviour in response to each other\'s actions.
asocial phase (of attachment)
approximately the first 6 weeks of life, in which infants respond in an equally favourable way to interesting social and nonsocial stimuli

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