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Social Psych Ch. 8


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people engaged in common activities but having minimal direct interaction
social facilitation
a process whereby the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on difficult tasks
mere presence theory
a theory holding that the mere presence of others is sufficient to produce social facilitation effects
evaluation apprehension theory
a theory holding that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those ohers are seen as potential evaluators
distraction-conflict theory
a theory holding that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those others distract from the task and create attentional conflict
social loafing
a group-produced reduction in individual output on easy tasks where contributions are pooled
collective effort model
the theory that individuals will exert effort on a collective task to the degree that they think their individual efforts will be important, relevant, and meaningful for achieving outcomes that they value
the loss of a person's sense of individuality and the reduction of normal constraints against deviant behavior
group polarization
the exaggeration through the group discussion of initial tendencies in the thinking of group members
a group decision-making style characterized by an excessive tendency among group members to seek cocurrence
process loss
the reduction in group performance due to obstacles created by group processes, such as problems of coordination and motivation
a technique that attempts to increase the production of creative ideas by encouraging group members to speak freely without criticizing their own or others' contributions
escalation effect
the condition in which commitments to a failing course of action are increased to justify investments already made
transactive memory
a shared system for remembering information that enables multiple people to remember information togeter more efficiently than they could alone
social dilemma
a situation in which a self-interested choice by everyone creates the worst outcome for everyone
prisoner's dilemma
a type of dilemma in which one party must make either cooperative or competitive moves in relation to another party; typically designed in such a way that competitive moves are more beneficial to either side, but if both sides make competitive moves, tjey are both worse off than if they both cooperated
resource dilemmas
social dilemmas concerning how two or more people share a limited resource
graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction (GRIT)
a strategy for unilateral, persistent efforts to establish trust and cooperation between opposing parties
integrative aggreement
a negotiated resolution to a conflict in which all parties obtain outcomes that are superior to what they would have obtained from an equal division of the contested resources

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