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American Heritage Final Review


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Barron v. Baltimore
The bill of rights only applies to fegeral government, dos not apply to states
The Great Compromise
Representation: lower house gets representation by population
Slavery: 3/5ths of the slave population would be counted for taxes and representation
Slave trade would end in 20 years
All fugitive slaves must be returned to the South
Confederation v. Federation
Confederation: people-> state-> national govt -> foreign policy and security
Federation: like confederation, except there is interaction between citizens and national gov't
First Past the Post v. Proportional
First past - winner take all
Proportional - losing votes count, 5% of the representation, easy for small parties to get in, party selects who gets in
Large Republic Theory
James Madison
Brown v. Board of Education
Declared that the seperate but equal laws were unconstitutional, death of Jim Crow laws
Major Figures at the Constitutional Convention
Roger Sherman - most successful at prompting compromise
Edmond Randolph-governor of VA, refused to sign but later did, a persuader
Madison - father of the Constitution
Hamilton-From NY
Rules at the Constitutional Convention
keep things quiet, oath of secrecy
Populism v. Progressivism
Responses to Big Politics
Populism-emerges in rural areas, joined by labor unions in big cities, Democrats
Progressivism-urban, big city
Shay's Rebellion
Rebellions like this were happening in every state, but this one set it off, showed unrest, dissatisfatction, and problems witht eh government
Favored ratification, youth, promoted faith in the constituion. Federalist Papers-Jay, Madison, Hamilton
No Bill of rights was their main argument
Concerned about big governments
Checks and Balances
Where the roles and responsibilities of government overlap
Separation of powers
national level, between branches of government
Division of powers
between states and national government
5 Rule of Law
Genrality, Prospectivity, Publicity, Due Process, Consent
applies to everyone, everyone is equal under the law, the law is blind
can't punish past actions with new laws
laws must be published
Due Process
Consistent enforcement of the laws
Laws have to be made by the consent of the people
Keynesian Economics
the government should increase spending and decrease taxes during a depression.
as price increases, producers are willing to supply more
as price decreases, consumers demand more
6 Market Weaknesses
1. imperfect information
2. externalities
3. public goods
4. monopoly
5. depression/recession
6.economic injustice
Imperfect Information
one party has information that would affect the market price
positive or negative
an unintended consequence to a 3rd party
Public Goods
"my consumption does not decrease the quality of your consumption"
ex: national defense, lighthouses
can pick a price, but can't control demand, quality isn't as high and prices aren't as low
threat of substitutes
Economic instability
Economic Injustice
Survival of the fittest
Problems with the Articles of Confederation
they were rigid, couldn't be amended easily, no executive branch, no national courts, no interstate regulation, no national diplomacy, no national military, no power to tax
5 Growth Factors
1. Resources
2. Labor Quality
3. Capital
4. Technology
5. Entrepreneurship
1st Political Parties
Democratic Republicans
Federalists (political party)
Empire, powerful government, US Mercantilism - central bank, pay off debts, trade with England
Democratic Republicans (political party)
small government, virtue

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