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American Heritage 100


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How are nations usually defined?
How is America defined?
-economic abundance: usu. constant, an expectation/aspiration for those who haven't experienced it
-buying into American political creed: equality, rights
Lord Baltimore;haven for Catholics, Protestant servants come; religious civil war
William Penn, Quaker; religious toleration for Christians, still lack of unity/brotherhood
Great Awakening
series of revivals; emotional, unlearned style; charismatic preachers: Edwards, Whitefield
Great Awakening's impact
evangelicals persecuted; set stage for opposing civil and religious authority's alliance; evangelicals became architects for religous freedom
18th century philosophical movement; John Locke; influenced relig., edu., science, art, philos.; Constitution
Core Enlightenment Precepts
-faith in reason
-ancient civilizations=guide
-human nature=basically good
-irrational/corrupt institutions = reason for men's follies
-new, rational institutions would free human spirit of constraints of old
-orderly, gradual reform
Enlightenment and Religion
-state church held ppl. down
-not atheists, but Deists ("Clockmaker God"- set mechanism in motion, then sit back and let it run, ex.: stars= orderly mechanism, rational laws, predictable)
Age of Reason
Tom Paine
-anti Bible ("word of a demon")
-discover god through reason
Human Predicament
Tyranny--Revolution--Anarchy(chaos)--Competing Groups--Tyranny again
Good Society
escapes Human Predicament
dictatorship; ppl. are like children and must be controlled by the state
Classical Republicanism
humans are corrupt, but are corruptible; the right constitution will bring out the best in ppl.
idea of indiv. freedom; both good and bad ppl. exist, gov't should secure rights of idividuals
ppl. inherently good, but corrupted by environment (poverty, greed, etc...; gov't used to correct societal ills
Checks and Balances enforce:
Tenets of Republicanism
Liberty and Power in eternal struggle; power needs no protection, but liberty does
British Constitution/ Government set-up
The One (the crown)--The Nobility (the House of Lords)-- The People (the House of Commons)
Proclamations Line
colonists couldn't settle across line without permission; evidence of power overwhelming liberty; land=power, land=independence(American Dream)
French and Indian War
Eng. vs. France (and native American allies); England won; Treaty of Paris; costly,debt, world war
Stamp Act
taxes every official paper; Stamp tax collectors sent from England=placemen paying patronage to king Gge.; No Taxation Without Representation!; Stamp Act meant to be a small precedent for further taxes; England repeals while issuing Declaratory Act
Declaratory Act
Parliament has right to tax and bind colonists
Republican view vs. British POV
Ex: Colonists; Parliament=oppressive
British; Parliament=Liberty
Boston Massacre
triggered by fear of standing army ("regulars"); 1770
Second Treatise of Gov't
-state of nature: ppl. naturally free, no gov't, hypothetical
-gov't formed by ppl.(social compact)
-gov't's purpose: protect rights of ppl.
-consent of the governed (not divine mandate)
-right to alter or abolish (formed by ppl. so abolished/changed by ppl.)
Social Compact influenced
Declaration of Independence
American Revolution=radical b/c:
-its ideas
-its length and disruptions
Ex. of Slaves caught Contagion of Liberty
-Charleston Slave March "Liberty! Liberty!"
-Freedom suits in MA (state const. says slavery illegal, by 1790s no slavery in MA)
-William Whipple and Prince
-revolution made ppl.? slavery
Pennsylvania Constitution
-unicameral legislature
-no property qualificationsn
-election every year
-assumes ppl. are basically good
Common Sense
-Tom Paine
-important argument for independence
-radical argument against idea of monarchy
Declaration of Independence
-attacked King George III
-new political theory
-Idea of declaring independence spread
Accomlishments of Confederation
-Congress (but no president)
-Won Revolutionary War
-Northwest Ordinance
Northwest Ordinance
-establishes territories, says they will become states
-no official religion; religious toleration
-banned slavery in NW territory
Limits of Confederation
-couldn't tax (could request money)
-couldn't negotiate or tax trade (tariff)
-couldn't stop state disputs (esp. border disputes)
-couldn't defend against enemies
Road to Constitution
-Annapolis Convention (12 men from 5 states; a flop)
-Shay's Rebellion (revealed weakenesses of Confederation)
-Philadelphia Convention (55 delegates from 12 states; a success; hoped to rescue America from factions)
Shay's Rebellion
Western Mass. farmers in debt; shut down courts; showed national gov't's helplessness against domestic disorder
Federalist #10
Madison; "republican remedy" to republican disease of factions (factions bad b/c can get tyranny of the majority and trample rights of minority) = an extended, diverse republic: factions are solution to factions Ex: no religous civil war in PA because too many factions to organize
Factions Media example
President Clinton trying to fix social security: 1100 interest groups, differing interests
Check on Tyranny of the Majority
Separation of Powers
Media Clip demonstrating Tyranny of the Majority
Sen. Orrin Hatch: Iran Contra Affair; executive branch no making foreign policy with regard to Congress
Media Clip demonstrating Tyranny of the Majority/Factions
Botman Case; Jewish girl v. School Choir in Utah (Mormons)
Constitution: Rule of __?__
Rule of Law; not rule of tyrant; written constitution restrains gov't officials; called "Supreme Law of the Land"
Media Clip demonstrating Rule of Will
BBC production Nazis in Britain; Nazi mad at British woman who wouldn't sell to Nazis; arrogance of rule of force/ will
Media Clip demonstrating Rule of LAw
Mayor San Francisco issues marriage liscences to gays even though against CA law, state overruled him, revoked liscences
Rule of Law
-Due Process

(provides predictability)
Father of Bill of Rights
Impact of Bill of Rights
-took away Anti-Fed issue
-appealed to RI and NC
-"Cult of Rights"
Media Clip on Cult of Rights
Group lobbies for lobsters' "right" to life
First-party System
Democratic-republicans vs. Federalists
Third-party System
Democrats vs. Republicans
1830s-1850s political parties:
Democrats vs. Whigs
1st presidential candidate to campaign for self
William Henry Harrison
Media Clip on Mob Rule
Religions, cults, where do you draw the line? Images of religions/cults (incl. "Legacy") and persecutions

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