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Anatomy & Physiology 2006 Sem1 ch1


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The science of body structures and the relationships between them.
The science of body functions – how the body works.
The careful cutting apart of body structures.
Study of microscopic structure of tissues.
Levels of Structural Organisation
1) Chemical, 2) Cellular, 3) Tissue, 4) Organ, 5) System, 6) Organismal.
Systems of the Human Body
1) Integumentary, 2) Skeletal, 3) Muscular, 4) Nervous, 5) Endocrine, 6) Lymphatic, 7) Cardiovascular, 8) Respiratory, 9) Digestive, 10) Urinary, 11) Reproductive.
Non-invasive Diagnostic Techniques
1) Palpation, 2) Auscultation, 3) Percussion.
Basic Life Processes
1) Metabolism - sum of all chemical processes, 2) Responsiveness – the ability to detect and respond to stimuli, 3) Movement – body, organs and cells, 4) Growth – an increase in body size, 5) Differentiation – able to change/specialise, 6) Reproduction – from single cells to new life.
The human body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions within physiological limits.
Feedback System
A cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, re-evaluated and so on.
Three Basic Components of a Feedback System
1) Receptor – structure that monitors change and sends input to a control centre, 2) Control Centre – structure (eg-brain) that sets the range of values within parameters needed to maintain a controlled condition as well as evaluate input and generate output when required, 3) Effector – structure that receives output and produces response or effect that changes controlled condition.
Negative Feedback System
Reverses a change in a controlled condition.
Positive Feedback System
Strengthens or reinforces a change in a controlled condition.
Anatomical Position
Person is oriented in an erect standing position, eyes and head facing forward, feet forward and perpendicular to the body and arms close to the sides and palms of the hands facing forward with fingers extended. Lying face down – Prone and lying face up – Supine.
Regional Names
Head (Cephalic), Neck (Cervical), Trunk, Upper Limb, Lower Limb.
Directional Terms
Superior, Inferior, Anterior, Posterior, Medial, Lateral, Intermediate, Ipsilateral, Contralateral, Proximal, Distal, Superficial, Deep.
Sagittal (or median), Para Sagittal, Frontal (or Coronal), Transverse (Cross sectional or Horizontal, Oblique.
Body Cavities
Cranial, Vertebral, Thoracic – Pleural – Pericardial – Mediastium, Abdominopelvic – Abdominal – Pelvic.
Cavity Regions and Quadrants
Right upper quadrant, Left upper quadrant, Right lower quadrant, Left lower quadrant. Right Hypochondriac, Epigastric, Left Hypochondriac, Right Lumbar, Umbilical, Left Lumber, Right Inguinal (Iliac), Hypogastric, Left Inguinal (Iliac).
Medical Imaging
Radiography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Ultrasound, Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography, Radionuclide Scanning, Endoscopy.

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