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Neuro - Thalamus


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Sensory relay nuclei of thalamus?
VPL: input, output?
spinothalamic/medial lemniscus -> VPL -> somatosensory cortex
VPM: input, output?
trigeminothalamic tract/trigeminal lemniscus -> VPM -> somatosensory cortex
gustatory pathway (from soliatry nuc) -> VPM -> gustatory cortex of postcentral gyrus (ipsilat)
LGN: input, output?
retina/optic tract -> LGN -> primary visual cortex
MGN: input, output?
brachium of inferior colliculus -> MGN -> primary auditory cortex
Motor relay nuclei of thalamus?
VA: input, output?
GPi, SNpr, deep cerebellar nuc -> VA -> prefrontal, preorbital, premotor cortices (very diffuse)
VL: input, output?
GPi, SNpr, deep cerebellar nuc -> VL -> motor, supplementary motor cortices (specific, not diffuse)
Pulvinar: input, output? If lesioned?
tectum (sup collic, MGN, LGN) -> PULVINAR -> parieto-temporo-occiptal association cortices

Lesion = sensory dysphasia
AN: input, output? What key circuit is this?
mamillary body (mamillothalamic tract) -> AN -> cingulate gyrus (Papez ciruit of emotion)
MD: input, output?
amygdala, olfactory cortex, BG, limbic -> MD -> frontal/prefrontal cortex

CM: input, output?
GP, sensory pathways -> CM -> striatum, cerebral cortex
What nucleus is damaged in WERNICKE-KORSAKOFF SYNDROME? What is the deficit?
MD; memory loss
What nucleus directs behavioral orientation toward relevant somestheitc, visual, and auditory stimuli?
What is the auditory relay nucleus?
What is the visual relay nucleus?
What nuclei relay BG and cerebellar inputs to cortex?
What nucleus relays somatosensory SPINAL inputs to cortex?
What nucleus relays somatosensory CN inputs to cortex?
What nuclei are involved in arousal?
What nucleus is involved in memory?
What nuclei are involved in limbic pathways?
What is the reticular nucleus of the thalamus?
surrounds thalamus, thin layer of GABA-ergic neurons, regulates other thalamic nuclei
3 major arteries that irrigate the thalamus?
Pcomm, PCA, ant choroidal artery
What does the anterior choroidal artery supply?
LGN (also, GP, posterior limb of internal capsule)
What does the Pcomm supply?
VENTRAL THALAMUS (and hypothalamus)

**2nd most common aneurysm in circle of willis -> 3rd nerve palsy**
What does the PCA supply?
majority of thalamus (major midbrain supplier), also, occipital lobe, inf surface of temporal lobe, hippocampal formation
Common symptom of PCA occulsion?
contralateral hemianopia w/macular sparing
Perfusion of anterior capsule?
ACA (w/ some lateral striate branches of MCA)
Pefusion of genu of internal capsule?
MCA/internal carotid branches (w/ some anterior choroidal)
Pefusion of posterior capsule?
Anterior choroidal (w/ some lenticulostriate branches of MCA)
What are the primary relay nuclei, and what are their functions?
LGN (vision)
MGN (auditory)
VPL & VPM (somatosensory body, and head),
What are the secondary relay nuclei?
VA (conveys mvt from the BG to motor cortical areas)
VL (convey mvt from the cerebellum to motor cortical areas)
AN and MD (magnocellaris) (imputs from limbic, send info to frontal and cingulate areas)
What are the association nuclei?
Pulvinar (connected with association areas of parietal, occipital, temporal)
MD (parvocellularis) (connected with association areas of prefrontal cortex)

**essential for language and cognitive processes**
WHat are the diffuse and intrinsic nuclei?
Intralaminar nuclei (project through cortex and receive many inputs)

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