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A&DD midterm


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Epigenetic principle
Each stage of development follows and builds upon the one before, and each one must be satisfactorily passed through for development to proceed smoothly
Crisis points
A basic assumption of life cycle theory is that each stage is characterized by a crisis point that must be negotiated successfully.
A crisis requires
a person to adapt. It is a biopsychosocial event.
Theoretical and clinical concepts of normality in psychiatry fall under 4 functional perspectives
1)normality as health 2)Normality as utopia 3)Normality as utopia 4)Normality of process
Normality as health
Behavior assumed to be within normal limits when no manifest psychology is present
Normality as Utopia
Normality is a harmonious and optimal blending of the diverse elements of the mental apparatus that culminates in optimal functioning
Normality as average
Bell curve. Middle range is normal, extremes are deviant
Normality as process
Normality is the end result of interacting systems; ie Eriksonian epigenesis
4 basic parts of a neuron
1)Soma 2)Axon 3)Dendrites 4) Synapses
Cell body, contains nucleus and other major elements of neural functioning
Conducts the nerve impulse to some location removed from the cell body
Receives signals from other neurons and transmit them back to the cell body of their own neuron
Specialized area of contact between 2 or more neurons
4 lobes of the cerebral cortex
Frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital
Frontal lobe : research interest
Of interest in research on mood disorders and schizophrenia.
Frontal lobe functions
Motor activation, conceptual planning, aspects of personality, aspects of language production
Temporal lobe functions
language, memory, emotions
Parietal cortex
Association cortices for visual, tactile, and auditory input
Occipital cortex
Visual input.
Acquired disorder of language: comprehension, word choice, expression, syntax
6 neurotransmitters
dopamine, serotonin, histamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, acetylcholine
Learning theory
A change in a person\'s behavior in a given situation brought about by repeated experiences in that situation.
Operant conditioning
Learning occurs as a consequence of action; related to trial and error learning
Cross cultural studies show that ___ is a universal unit.
the nuclear family of mother, father, and children
Culture is
the matrix in which all biopsychosocial funcioning operates
Culture bounds
all psychiatric syndromes to some extent
Eugen Bleuler coined
the term schizophrenia and the 4 A\'s of schizophrenia
Eugen Bleuler based the term schizophrenia on
the presence of a schism between thought, emotion, and behavior
The 4 A\'s of schizophrenia are
affect, associations, autism, ambivalence
True or false: schizophrenia is equally present in men and women.
The peak ages for onset for schizophrenia in men are:
between 15-25
The peak ages for onset for schizophrenia in women are:
In the northern hemisphere, patients w/ Schizophrenia are born
from January to April
In the southern hemisphere, patients w/ Schizophrenia are born
from July to September
Why is schizophrenia associated with birth months?
Season specific risk factors: a virus or seasonal change in diet; those w/ a genetic predisposition for sch. have an increased biological advantage to survive season specific insults
Schizophrenic patients have a higher ___ than do the general population.
mortality rate from accidents and natural causes
__ is a common cause of death among schizophrenic patients
Dopamine theory of schizophrenia
Sch. results from too much dopaminergic activity. Meds that work on dopamine cause a drop in psychotic symptoms.
Eye movement dysfunction theory of schizophrenia
The inability of a person to accurately follow a moving visual target is the defining basis for the disorders of smooth visual pursuit and the disinhibition of saccadic eye movements seen in schizophrenic patients. Eye movement disorder may be a trait maker for schizophrenia--since it is seen in first-degree relatives of these patients.
Psychodynamic theories of schizophrenia
The general psychoanalytic view of schizophrenia hypothesizes that the ego deficit affects the interpretation of reality and the control of inner drives, such as sex and aggression; it occurs as a consequence of distortions in reciprocal relationship between the infant and the mother; patient never achieves object constancy; early inability to achieve self-object differentiation.
The general psychoanalytic view of schizophrenia hypothesizes that the ego deficit affects the interpretation of reality and the control of inner drives, such as sex and aggression; it occurs as a consequence of distortions in reciprocal relationship betw
Psychodynamic theories of schizophrenia
stress-diathesis model of schizopphrenia
A person may have a specific vulnerability (diathesis) that, when acted upon by a stressful influence, allows the symptoms of shiz. to develop
Schizophrenigenic mother
Debunked theory that relationship with ma causes schizophrenia
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Delusions and hallucinations
Negative symptoms
affective flattening or blunting, poverty of speech, blocking, poor grooming, anhedonia, social withdrawal
poverty of speech
5 subtypes of schizophrenia
Paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, residual
Paranoid type of schizophrenia
Typical paranoid schiz. patients are tense, suspicious, guarded, and reserved, and present w/ systemized delusions
Disorganized type of schizophrenia
Characterized by marked regression to primitive, disinhibited, & unorganized behavior and absence of symptoms for catatonic type
Disorganized type of schiz. was formerly called
Catatonic type of schizophrenia
Marked disturbance in motor function, which may involve stupor, negativism, rigidity, excitement, or posturing
Undifferentiated type of schizophrenia
Clearly schizophrenic, but cannot easily be fitted into one of the other types
Residual type of schizophrenia
Continuing presence of the schizophrenic disturbance, in the absence of complete set of active symptoms or suggestive symptoms to meet another type of schizophrenia. If delusions or hallucinations are present, they are not prominent and are not accompanies by strong affect.
Primary reason for schizophrenic patients\' relapse
Noncompliance with antipsychotic medication
__ in the family has been show to increase chances of relapse
EE or expressed emotion in the family
Expressed emotion
Parents or caretakers may behave with criticism, hospitality, and over-involvement towards a person with schizophrenia
Good prognosis in schizophrenia involves
Late onset, acute onset, good premorbid functioning, married, good support system, positive symptoms, obvious precipitating factors
Poor prognosis in schizophrenia involves
Young onset, insidious onset, no precipitating factors, poor premorbid functioning, single/divorced/widowed, poor support system, negative symptoms, many relapses, history of assaultiveness
Schizophreniform disorder
Symptoms same as for schizophrenia, except that they have been present for one month, but less than 6 months
Folie a deux
a patient\'s psychiatric symptoms develop during a long-term relationship w. another person who had similar psychotic syndromes before the onset of the symptoms in the patient w/ the shared psychotic disorder
Syndrome consists of sudden, unprovoked outbursts of wild rage that cause affect persons to run about madly, indiscriminately attacking and maiming persons and animals in their way. Malaysian.
patient\'s delusion that his penis is shrinking and disappearing into his abdomen and that he may die. For women, it involves complaints that vulva,labia, and breasts are shrinking. SE Asia & some areas of China
Arctic hysteria! Attacks lasting from 1 to 2 hrs, during which patients may scream and tear off and destroy their clothing; usually women; while imitating the cry of some animal or bird, they throw themselves on the snow or ice
Wihtigo or windigo psychosis
Cree, Ojibwa, and Salteaux Native Americans. Affected persons believe that they may be transformed into a wihtigo, a giant monster that eats human flesh
Postpartum psychosis
Characterized by depression, delusions, and thoughts by the mother of harming either the infant or herself. Must be watched closely.
2 major mood disorders
major depressive disorder and bipolar I disorder
Depression in mythology (or \"history\" as the review states)
King Saul had depression and eventual suicide. Saul was treated for hsi depression with soothing music. Ajax commits suicide in the Illiad.

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