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Ch 10 Analgesic Agents


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Pain that is sudden in onset, usually subsides when treated, and typically occurs over less than a 3-month period.
acute pain
Habitual psychologic and physiologic (physical) dependence on a substance that is beyond normal voluntary control.
A drug that is added as a second drug for combined therapy with a primary drug and may have additive or independent analgesic properties, or both.
adjuvant analgesic agent
A substance that binds to a receptor and causes a response.
A substance that binds to a receptor and causes a partial response that is not as strong as that cuased by an agonist.
agonist-antagonist (also called partial agonist)
Medications that relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness.
analgesics (painkillers)
An agent that binds to a receptor and prevents (blocks) a response.
Pain related to a variety of causes as a result of cancer and/or the metastisis of cancer.
cancer pain
Pain resulting from any disorder that causes central nervous system (CNS)damage.
central pain
Persistent or recurring pain that is often difficult to treat. Typically it is pain that lasts longer than 3 months.
chronic pain
The most common and well-described theory of pain transmission and pain relief. It uses this model to explain how impulses from damaged tissues are sensed in the brain.
gate theory
Pain that results from a disturbance of function or pathologic change in a nerve.
neuropathic pain
Analgesics that are not classified as opioids.
nonopioid analgesics
A large, chemically diverse group of drugs that are analgesics and also possess antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity but are not steroids.
nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Synthetic narcotic agents that bind to the mu, kappa, and delta receptors to relive pain but are not themselves derived from the opium plant.
opioid analgesics
A physiologic result of long-term opioid use in which larger doses of opioids are required to maintain the same level of analgesia.
opioid tolerance
The signs and symptoms associated with the abstinence from or withdrawal ofopioid analgesics when the body has become physically dependent on the substance.
opioid withdrawal (opioid abstinence syndrome)
An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Pain is subjective and individual experience; it can be defined as whatever the experiencing person says it is and it exists whenever he or she says it does
The level of stimulus that results in the perception of pain.
pain threshold
The amount of pain a patient can endure without it interfering with normal function.
pain tolerance
A substance that binds to a receptor and causes effects similar to but less pronounced than those of a pure agonist.
partial agonist
Pain experienced in a body part that has been surgically or tramatically removed.
phantom pain
The physical adaptation of the body to the presence of an opioid or other addictive substance.
physical dependence
Pain that is psychologic in nature but is truly real pain in terms of actual pain impulses that travel through nerve cells
psychogenic pain
A pattern of compulsive use of opioids or any other addictive substance characterized by a continuous craving for the substance and the need to use it for effects other that pain relief.
psychologic dependence (addiction)
Pain occurring in an area away from the organ of origin.
referred pain
Pain that originates from skeletal muscles, ligaments, or joints.
somatic pain
Pain that originates from the skin or mucous membranes.
superficial pain
Pain that results from a pathology of the vascular or perivascular tissues.
vascular pain
Pain that originates from organs or smooth muscles.
visceral pain

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