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KINE 3600 - Athletic Therapy II - Pharmacology


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What is a drug?
A drug is a chemical agent that affects living processes.
What are pharmacokinetics?
Pharmacokinetics is the study of a drug through the body to produce the desired effects.
What are the five steps of pharmacokinentics and what do they describe?
The five steps of pharmacokinetics describe the movement of a drug through the body. The steps are:
What are the two subroutes of administration?
Enteral route: through the GI tract; can include, oral, sublingual, rectal.

Parental Route: intravenous,intraarterial intramuscular, subcutaneous injections
What is a vehicle?
A vehicle in pharmacology is something that facilitates entry into the body like a tablet, capsule, liquid, powder, enteric coated preparation, sustained released preparation.
What is drug absorption?
Drug absorption is movement of a drug from it's site of administration to the blood.
What are the factors that affect the rate of absorption?
Rate of dissolution, surface area, blood flow, and lipid solubility.
What is the half life of a drug?
The half life is the amount of time it takes for the drug to reduce by 50%
What is the therapeutic range?
The therapeutic range is from smallest effective amount of the drug to the toxic amount of the drug. The greater the therapeutic range the safer the drug.
What is the dosing objective with the therapeutic range?
The dosing objective is to maintain plasma levels using therapeutic range.
What is the first past effect?
The first pass effect is when a drug is metabolized in the liver by hepatic enzymes.
What factors affect distribution?
Blood flow, exiting the vascular system and receptorless drugs.
What is excretion?
Excretion is the process in drugs are excreted through the body such as urine, sweat, lungs, breast milk, saliva, bile.
What is potency mean?
A potent drugs requires less dosage to illicit the same effects of a similar drug.
What is MEC and what does it mean?
The minimum effective concentration (MEC) is the smallest concentration of drug that must be available to produce an effect.
Define Maximal Efficacy.
Maximal Efficacy is a dose response where once a dose threshold is met, the response won't be greater regardless of addition of more drug.
How are dosing intervals and plasma concentrations related?
There is a latency period between the dose and the therapeutic effect. If a dose is given and falls below the maximal effective concentration, there will be no effect.
When administering drug to an athlete, what must you record?
1) Athlete's name
2) Date
3) Drug Administered
4) Symptoms
5) Amount of drug given
What is a drug interaction?
A drug interaction may occur when two drugs are taken simultaneously. The drugs may act synergistically or inhibit each other.
What are some factors that affect drug interaction?
1)Genetics and age
2)Amount of drug given
3)Duration of drug therapy
4)time interval between taking the drugs
5)Which drug was taken first.
6)Current illness/disease
What is Reye's Syndrome?
Reye's syndrome is a severe disorder where a child frequently vomits after onset of the condition. Either recover rapidly or coma.
What are NSAID's?
Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs produce analgesia, reduce pain and fever by inhibiting prostaglandins
What are the most common analgesics used by athletes?
Aspirin, Tylenol, Advil
How do Analgesics control pain?
1)Decreases excitatory response of an impulse
2)inhibit individual impulse
3)decrease perception of impulse
4)decreases anxiety by controlling pain
What is the function of an analgesic?
An analgesic reduces or inhibits pain
What are some side effects of NSAID's?
Side effects can include GI irritation, renal impairment, hypersensitivity reactions.
What is the effect on cyclooxygenase?
The effect on cyclooxygenase inhibits the production of prostaglandins.
How do NSAID's have an antipryretic effect?
NSAID's lowers the set temperature point set by the hypothalamus.

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