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Athletic Therapy II - Ergogenic and Ergolytic Drugs


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What are the three major categories of ergogenic drugs used in sport?
1) Performance Enhancement(Ergogenic)
2)Therapeutic Drugs (Performance Continuance)
3)Street/Entertainment/Illicit drugs
What is the CCES?
Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport is the regulatory body for doping control.
What did Brooks and Becker develop? When?
In the 1980's, Brooks and Becker developed a method to find drug metabolites in the urine.
Who made the reference saying "if i told them that rat manure would make them stronger they would have taken it"?
Dr. John Zeigler stated this fact. He was a developer of steroids.
What did Buckley and Yesalis find at Michigan High School?
They found that:
1) 3% of the students had or are currently using steroids
2) 2/3 began using before age 16
3) 56.7% were using for improving physical appearance.
What are the drug elimination times for stimulants, cocaine (occasional, and repeated use), and codeine and narcotics in cough medicines?
1) Stimulants: 1-7 days
2) Cocaine (occasional): 6-12 hours
3) Cocaine (repeated use): 3-5 days
4) Codeine and narcotics in cough medicines: 24-48 hours
What are the drug elimination times for Marijuana, anabolic steroids (injected, oral), tranquilizers?
1) Marijuana: 3-5 weeks
2) Anabolic steroids:
Injected: 6-8 months
Oral: 3-6 months
3) Tranquilizers: 4-8 days
What are the 9 doping classes? Give examples of each.
1)Stimulants: caffeine, ephedrine, cocaine
2)Narcotics:oxycodone, morphine
3)Cannaboids: Marijuana, Hashish
4)Anabolic Agents:
Exogenous AAS: injected(nandralone)
Endogenous AAS: made by the body (testosterone)
5)Peptide Hormones, Mimetics
7)Agents with anti-estrogenic activity
8)Masking agents
List 5 side effects of anabolic steroids.
1) Deepening of voice
2) Gynecomastia
3) decrease sperm production
4) atrophy of testicles
5) Acne
7) Sterility
What is hGH and what does it do? What is the biggest side effect associated with hGH?
hGH or human Growth Hormone increases protein synthesis and enhances uptake of amino acids. Usually used in children who are deficient in hGH. It can also decrease fat and increase lean muscle mass. The largest side effect is Acromegaly or gigantism. Overgrowth of the mandible, costal, and vertbrate, and frontal bone.
What is a beta agonist? is it banned?
Beta agonists are CNS depressants and are banned in sports involving shooting, archery, diving, bobsleigh.
What are the 7 prohibited substances?
1)Beta Blockers
2)Local Anaesthetics
3)Asthma and respiration drugs > beta agonists
5)Caffeine >12ug/ml
What is the problem with herbal supplements?
They can contain ingredients not on the label. Banned substances may be under a different name. (ephedra = ma huang)
The testing process can be in or out of the competition with or without notice. T/F
What is EPO or Eythropoietin and how is it used?
Erythropoeitin is injected to stimulate RBC production. Then, blood is either injected from a homologous user or the user freezes his blood while his blood count rises and reinjects himself with the blood he had froze. The side effects are increased viscosity of the blood. Long Endurance athletes use EPO and blood doping to increase maximal oxygen consumption. But there are no tests to disqualify users. However, people with hematocrit levels 50% are disqualified as unsafe to compete.
What are the three banned doping methods?
1) Enhancment of Oxygen transfer
2) Pharmacological or physical Manipulation of urine
3)Gene doping

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