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BIO 1510: Lab Exam 2-3: Lab 24


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Plant Cells: Protoplasts
cytoplasm and nucleus, living part of plant, everything but cell wall
Plant Cells: cell walls
composed of cullulose

primary cell wall is the outer one

secondary cell wall is the inside one, impregnated with lignin which stiffens, thicker
Plant Cells: plasmodesmata
connections between cells
Plant Cells: pits
area of plasmodesmata w/ no secondary cell wall
Plant Cells: vacuole
stores water and minerals
Plant Cells: plastids
organelle infolved w/ photosynthesis and storage which contains pigments
Plant Cells: 3 Types of plastids and their pigments
chloroplast - chlorophyll

chromoplast - carotenoids (yellow, red, orange)

leucoplasts - lack pigments, store starches proteins, lipids
Plant Tissues: 4 Types
1. dermal
2. vascular
3. ground
4. meristematic
Meristematic Tissues
active regions of cell division and growth
3 Types of Meristems
apical meristems - tips of roots, stems which lengthens body (primary growth)

lateral meristems - provides secondary growth which adds girth

Intercalary - regrowth of leaves from base, found in grasses
2 Types of Lateral Meristems
Vascular cambium - makes secondary vascular tissues in Woody Dicots

Cork cambium - makes corks cells which form bark in woody dicots
Ground Tissue (promeristem)
main plant body, photosynthetic, storage
Ground Tissue: 3 Types of Cells
parenchyma - most common cells which function in photosythesis, storage, secreation etc
- thin primary cell walls
- large vacuoles
- living protoplasts
- often 14 sided polygons
- can divide at maturity

Collenchyma cells
- alive at maturity
- more long than wide
- cell walls are thick in corners
- not lignified but flexible
- found only in primary plant body
- ex. celary strands

Sclerenchyma cells
- rigid thick cell walls
+ - primary and lignified seconday
- lack protoplast at maturity
Ground Tissue: 2 Types of Sclernchyma cells
1. Fibers - long slender cells in clumps which supporty plant (ex. burlap, linen, sisal rope)

2. Sclereids - thick brittle cell walls are cuboidal, protect embryo in seedcoat
(ex. pears have stone cells)
Ground Tissue: Sclernchyma cells: Pears
Pear has stone cells (sclereids) with secondary cell walls with lignin

- phloroglucinol stains them red and you see round clups of sclerids
Cell Walls: Middle Lamella
holds cells together, produced first by protoplast
membrane which surrounds vacuoles
Potatoe plastid
Leucoplasts - contain starch (purple w/ IKI solution)
Epidermal Tissues: Epidermis
one cell thick from protoderm, protection, secretes waxes and oils
Epidermal Tissues: periderm
outer layers of bark *no chloroplasts in epidermis
Epidermal Tissues: guard cells
surround the stomata and function via turgor pressure to open of close the stomata

Epidermal Tissues: root hairs
tubular extension which increase surface area for absorbtion
Epidermal Tissues: trichomes
hair-like structures which specialize in protection
2 Vascular Tissues
dead tubular structure
toward center of plant
transports water and minerals
Xylem: 3 cell types
Vessels - large barrel-shaped cells joined end to end.
More efficient. More evolved. Found in Angiosperms

Tracheids - long narrow spindle-shaped cells w/ tapered ends
gymnosperms only have tracheids

Pits - old sites of plasmodesmata in vessels and thracheids which allow lateral movement
transports sugars
living tubular structure
toward outer peripery of plant
Phloem: 2 cell types
Sieve Tube Members - cylindrical cell w/ thin primary cell walls with living protoplasts at maturity but LACK A NUCLEUS
- join end to end at sieve plates with plasmedesmata

Companion cell - joined to STM via a lateral plasmadesmata which loads and unloads organic matter

**has p-protein which seals sieve plate in case of damage
What type of cells is an apple mostly composed of and what are their functions?
Parenchyma cells

protect the seeds

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