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Midieval Europe History Test- April 7


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religious communities formed by monks
social and political arrangement based on people's need for protection and landowner's need for defense; developed in Europe after fall of Rome, lasted till 1200; supported by loyalty
orders of rank and authority within different classes of people or organizations
oath of fealty
promise sworn by vassal saying that he will ramian loyal to the lord
lord's landowning subjects
armed, mounted soldiers
large estates granted to a warrior as a reward
to pay homage is like showing honor to their lords
all land and stuctures owned by lord
like a slave, but cannot be traded away and are instead forced to stay and work on one piece of land.
union of people who practiced one trade
code of canduct for knights based on courtesy, honor, defending the weak, and loyalty to one's lord
samurai code based on Confucious ideas and honor; means "the way of the warrior"
group of people ordained for religious services
saving of the soul from hell by accepting beliefs of church, living a moral life, and performing good works
act that deprives someone of membership in the church
one-tenth of person's produce paid in money, produce, or labor to the church
guilds of students and teachers
the eight wars occuring between 1096- 1270 over control of Jerusalem, four of which European church was part of
non- Christian
first emperor- crowned by Pope Leo III for support and protection= church supported Charlemagne; encouraged much learning and literature; tried to convert all to Christianity by force; nearly doulbed size of empire= most powerful leader since Rome
Pope Leo III
crowned Charlemagne emperor because of his need for support and protection of king
William the Conquerer
first Norman of England; defeated King Harold in Battle of Hastings; used fuedalism to rule
King Harold
Succeeded King Edward of France to throne; beaten by Edward's cousin William in Battle of Hastings
King John
allowed powerful landowners to get more power; led England into losing wars and increasing taxation; lost all land in northern France= angry vassals who had fiefs there; had dissagreement w/ pope= shurch shut doors to English; lords rennounced loyalty to king= eventually forced him to sign a document giving more rights to nobles
Abbot Sugar
Became best friends w/ King Louis VI of France while studing in a monastry; bacame abbot and also king's advisor; tried to increase cooperation between Louis and nobles; developed fairer methods of taxation when lended the crown by Louis's son for about three years
Pope Gregory VIII
Wanted the church to be free of King's decisions in who was in the clergy; became Pope; excommunicated King Henry IV when he wouldn't agree to Pope's demands; eventually forced Henry to agree in order to cancel excommunications
Henry IV
was excommunicated by Pope Gregory for appointing posisions in clergy; traveled barefoot to Italy in winter to get Pope's trust back and to meet Pope's demands
Pope Urban II
persuaded Christians to start crusades; motives- get Jerusalem, unite Eastern Chistians under his rule, putting knight's energy into Chistian service
Greatest leader of Muslim army; name "honoring the faith"; sumpreme ruler of Egypt and Syria; gradually took over crusader states; defeated crusader army at Horns of Hattin mountain valley; took Jerusalem back under Muslim control
King Richard
called "the lion heart"; military genius, courageous, unstable character; retook land from Saladin, but not Jerusalem; eventually, treaty signed between Saladin and Richard allowing Richard to keep coastal cities to Jaffa and allowing pilgrims to visit Holy Land freely
How did fuedalism come to Europe?
Charlemagne devide kingsdom into provines (manors) with a lord to rule each one- fuedalism gone after his death; Vikings sailed from Scandinavia- killed, burned cities, took prisoners; William set up fuedal society because people needed protection from Vikings and landowners need defenses.
Who were the Vikings?
fiece warriors from Norway, Denmark, and Sweden; had boat design that could travel very quickly, easily manuverable, and could go upstream; a lot of rights- women could divorce without consent of husband; farmers for most of year; circular sheilds and swords; fought on water; started training at very young age; CHECK NOTES FOR MORE INFO
What were the classes of fuedalism? What did they contribute to the society?
Monarch: always the highest class, but lost power to lords

Lords and Nobles: acted as judge, ran manors, occaasionally battled, ladies also helped

Knights: started training at young age as a page, 13-15= squire or apprentice to knight, eventually became knight, followed chivalry code, had fief

Peasants: freemen and serfs gave all produce to lord, everything he owned belonged to lord, occationally tried to escape
What led to the growth of towns in the 1000's? How did it contribute to the growth of feudalism
foreign trade increased tramendously, the towns were relativevly safe from attacks; guilds formed

Feudalism decined because towns offer other options than to function in a feudal society
How do you attack and defend a castle?
Attacking: seige toweres, catapults, tunnels under the walls, stong forces

Defending: Gatehouses were not lined up, drawbridges dumped contents into deep ditch, several walls and braces blocked halls, stone walls, moats and ditches, special windows for archers,battlements
What are the different parts of a typical manor? What do they do?
West, East, and South Fields where farmers farmed. Village green in center. Manor house area had workshop and private garden. Lord had own hunting grounds. Had priest's house and church on grounds. had peasant huts. All allowed to graze in common pasture and meadow
What led to William the Conquerer becoming king?
William and Norman armies invaded England; William defeated Henry (king of England) in Battle of Hastings
What led King John losing many rights of the king? What was the Magna Carta and what did it do?
John led England into losing wars and ever-higher taxation. Lost support of nobles, thus lost much power; Magna Carta= means "great charter" document that gave many rights to nobles, had ideas of personal freedom and liberty
What were the crsades? Why did they take place?
Wars over control of Jerusalem, the Holy Land; Pope Urban urges Christians to gain land from Muslims so all could go there freely
The Great Domeday Book
a records of the results of surveys taken the ownership of all land; source of info for king's tax agents
What was the order in rank of the church clergy?
Pope, cardinal, archbishop, bishop, parish
What was the Concoradat of Worms and how did it come to be?
treaty between kings of Germany and Pope to finally settle disagreement over power to appoint positions in church; allowed pope to choose church leaders

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