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Psych Test 3 ch 11


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Behavioral patterns in intimate relationships and the motivational, cognitive, and affective processes that produce them
object relations
Processes that involve a subjective awareness of stimuli, feelings, or ideas
conscious mental preocess
A personality assessment method in which subjects are confronted with an ambiguous stimulus and asked to define it in some way; the assumption underlying these tests is that when people are faced with unstructured, undefined stimulus, they will project t
projective tests
A view analogous to dynamics among physical forces in which psychological forces such as wishes, fears, and intentions have a direction and an intensity
In Freud's theory, mental processes that are inaccessible to consciousness, many of which are repressed
unconscious mental processes
Freud's model of conflict between desires and the dictates of conscience or the constraints of reality, which posits three sets of mental forces or structures: id, ego, and superego
Structural model
Freud's model of conscious, preconscious, and unconscious processes
topographic model
Freud's theory of motivation, which held that people are motivated by sexual and aggressive instincts or drives
drive model
Thoughts that are not conscious but could become conscious at any point, much like information stored in long-term semantic memory
preconscious mental processes
In Freudian theory, the reservoir of sexual and aggressive energy, which is driven by impulses and is characterized by primary process thinking
Associative thinking described by Freud, in which ideas connected in people's minds through experience come to mind automatically when they think about related ideas; primary process thought is also wishful and unrealistic
primary process thinking
A projective personality test in which a subject views a set of inkblots and tells the tester what each inkblot resembles
Rorschach inkblot test
In Freudian theory, the structure that acts as conscience and source of ideals, or the parental voice within the person, established through identification
Rational, logical, goal-directed thinking
secondary process thinking
The structure in Freud's model of the mind that must somehow balance desire, reality, and morality
Conflicting feelings or intentions
In Freud's theory, the fear the boy has in the phallic stage that his father will castrate him for his wishes toward his mother
castration complex
A battle between opposing motives
Freud's model of how children develop, defined by his psychosexual stages
developmental model
The psychosexual phase that occurs roughly around ages 6 to 11, when children repress their sexual impulses
latency stage
In Freudian theory, process that occurs during the phallic stage of development when the child desires an exclusive, sensual or sexual relationship with the opposite sex parent
Oedipus complex
Freud's hypothesized stages in the development of personality, sexuality, and motivation
psychosexual stages
In Freudian theory, psychosexual stage that occurs at approximately age 12 and beyond, when conscious sexuality resurfaces after years or repression
genital stage
In Freudian theory, the psychosexual phase occurring roughly around ages 4 to 6, when children discover that they can get pleasure from touching their genitals
Phallic Stage
In psychoanalytic theory, prominent conflicts and concerns focused on wishes from a particular period
In Freudian theory, the human sexual drive, which refers as much to pleasure-seeking and love as to sexual intercourse
In Freudian theory, feeling of envy that emerges in girls, who feel that because they lack a penis that are inferior to boys
penis envy
The psychosexual phase occurring roughly around ages 2-3, which is characterized by conflicts with parents over compliance and defiance
anal stage
In Freudian theory, the psychosexual phase occurring roughly in the first year of life, when children explore the world through their mouths
oral stage
A defense mechanism in which the person refuses to acknowledge external realities or emotions
A defense mechanism in which thoughts that are too anxiety-provoking to acknowledge are kept from conscious awareness
The indirect expression of anger toward others
passive aggression
A defense mechanism that involves converting sexual or aggressive impulses into socially acceptable activities
Unconscious mental processes aimed at protecting a person from experiencing unpleasant emotions, especially anxiety
defense mechanisms
Making another person part of oneself by imitating the person's behavior, changing the self-concept to see oneself as more like that person, and attempting to become more like the person by accepting his or her values and attitudes
A defense mechanism in which a person attributes his own acknowledged feelings or impulses to others
A defense mechanism that involves explaining away actions in a seemingly logical way to avoid uncomfortable feelings
Reverting to conflicts or modes of managing emotion characteristic of an earlier particular stage
A single behavior, or a complex pattern of thought and action, which typically reflects compromises among multiple (and often conflicting) forces
compromise formations
A defense mechanism in which the person turns unacceptable feelings or impulses into their opposites
reaction formation
The conscious, self-defined problems people attempt to solve
life tasks
The importance individuals attach to various stimuli and to the outcomes they expect as a result of their behavior
personal value
Skills and abilities used for solving problems
A person's view if him/herself
A person's conviction that he can perform the actions necessary to produce an intended behavior
self-efficacy expectancy
A method of personality assessment whose aim is to understand the whole person in the context of his or her life experience and environment
life history methods
The way individuals conceive of reality and experience themselves and their world
phonomenal experience
Expectations relevant to desired outcomes
Mental representations of the people, places, things, and events that are significant in a person's life
personal constructs
Setting goals, evaluating one's own performance, and adjusting one's behaviors flexibly to achieve these goals in the context of ongoing feedback
Belief that a certain behavior will lead to a particular outcome
behavior-outcome expectancy
A continuum from emotional stability to emotional instability
Basic personality dispositions heavily influenced by genes
Emotional, cognitive, and behavioral tendencies that constitute underlying dimensions of personality on which individuals vary
A dimension whose low end is defined by people who display empathy and impulse control and the high end is defined by people who are aggressive, egocentric, impulsive, and antisocial
Multidirectional view of personality which asserts that personality if shaped by economic and cultural demands but that cultural and economic processes themselves are in part created to fulfill psychological needs
interactionist approaches
Aspects of the situation that interact with aspects of the person to produce behavior
situational variables
The way people resemble and differ from one another in personality and intelligence
individual differences
Process by which some personality dispositions are activated only under certain circumstances
person-by-situation interactions
A trait theory which asserts that personality consists of five traits (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism)
five factor model (FFM)
The tendency to be sociable, active, and willing to take risks
Feeling for another person who is hurting, which includes a cognitive component (understanding what the person is experiencing) and emotional component (experiencing a feeling of empathetic discomfort); in Roger's theory of personality, the capacity to u
Theories that propose that the need for relatedness is a central motive in humans and that people will distort their personalities to maintain ties to important people in their lives
relational theories
The primary motivation in humans, according to Cark Rogers, which includes a range of needs that humans experience, from the basic needs for food and drink to the needs to be open to experience and express one's true self
actualizing tendency
The enduring patterns of thought, feeling, an behavior that are expressed by individuals in different circumstances
Focus on aspects of personality that are distinctly human, not shared by other animals, such as how to find meaning in one's life
humanistic approaches
Carl Rogers' theory of personality, which focuses on understanding the individual's phenomenal world
person-centered approach
A core aspect of being, untainted by the demands of others
true self
A condition in which people mold themselves to other people's expectations and to the demands of the roles they play
false self
The recognition that life has no absolute value or meaning, that any meaning that does exist we create for ourselves, and that ultimately, we all face death
existential dread
An approach to personality and culture that views culture as an organized set of beliefs, rituals, and institutions that shape individuals to fit its patterns
culture-pattern approach
In Carl Rogers' theory, standards children internalize that they must meet in order to esteem themselves
conditions of worth
The way enduring patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior are organized within an individual
structure of personality
A person's view of what she/he should be like
ideal self
A school of modern philosophy that focuses on each individual's subjective existence or phenomenology and on the way the individual comes to terms with basic issues such as meaning in life and mortality

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