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Anatomy and Physiology Exam 2


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What makes up the Central nervous system?
the brain and spinal cord
What is the function of the meninges?
buffers between the bone and the nervous system
What are the layers in order of the meninges?
dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
Describe each of the layers of the meninges.
dura mater-the thickest layer, arachnoid-looks like spider legs that contain cerebral spinal fluid, pia mater-covers the brain, spinal cord and blood vessels-called the blood brain barrier
What is the importance of cerebral spinal fluid?
circulates through the ventricles of the brain, circulates and moving..if blocked is causes hydrocephalus
What is hydrocephalus?
water on the brain, causes huge ventricles, makes an infants head larger
What is the importance of the pia mater?
doesn't allow blood to enter the brain and diffuse across it
What are astrocystes?
they also protect the brain from allowing blood to enter because they cover the blood vessels
Where is the gray and white matter located in the spinal cord?
gray matter on the inside, white matter on the outside
What are the two major tracks of the dorsal white matter? and what are their fuctions
fasciulus gracilus-track that carry information up to the brain from the hindquarters, and cunaetus-track that carries info from the brain from the forelegs
How many neurons and synapses is the brain thought to have and are we born with this many?
10^12 neurons, and 200,000 synapses, we grow synapses from challenges and learning
Where do the descending tracks cross over and descend?
the medulla oblongata
What is the medulla oblongata?
pyraminds that cross over the corticospinal tracks, at the foramen magnum, where nuclei are located and take care of involuntary functions such as sneezing, vommiting, autonomic functions
What is the foramen magnum?
where the spinal cord enters
What are the pons?
the relay station between the cerebrum and the cerebellum, and with the help of the medulla, xontrols respiration
What is the midbrain?
controls auditory, sound, visual reflexes and eye movements
What is the reticular activating system?
the part that wakes us up located in the medulla/pons area, makes us alert, conscious, graduation of arousal
What happens if you disrupt this RAS in an animal?
the animal will become comatose,they will go into a coma and not be alert
What are the waves involed in the RAS and what are their functions?
delta waves-high amplitude usually involved with deep sleep and alpha waves-usually involed with being awake
What is the thalamus-
the relay system between the Reticular activating system (RAS) and the cerebral cortex, the RAS usually activates the cerebral cortex through the thalamus
What is REM?
rapid eye movement, muscle spasms,usually happens when one go from a deep sleep and get more alpha movement
What is insomania and sleep apnia?
insomnia-the inability to sleep, sleep apnia-not breathing while asleep and the body temp. falls, repsiratory muscles shut down
Look at powerpoint feb. 28th for cranial nerves
cranial nerves
What is the function of the corpus callosum?
nerve tracks that connect the right and left hemispheres
What is the location of the pituitary?
at the base of the brain, hypophysis-under/below, right in front of the optic chiasma
What are the two parts of the pituitary and describe both?
adenohypophysis:anterior pituitary has blood portal system between this and hypothalamus,controls the hypothalamus
What is warfarin?
add vitamin K because more prothrombin helps with clotting
What can cause skin darkening in large doses?
What is a modified sympathetic ganglion and what is it involved in?
adrenal medulla, involved in stress b/c it produces both norepinephrine and epinephrine, acts all over the body, called neural hormones
What are the functions of the adrenal cortex?
reduces inflammation, increases blood glucose, glucocorticoids
What is the function of the pars intermedia?
stimultes the melanocytes stimulating hormone
Describe the steps that the hypothalamus stimulates to stimulate the gonads?
hypothalamus stimulates the GnRH, then the anterior pituitary, then LH, FSH and then the gonads
What is the function of the medulla oblongata?
autonomic functions, such as vommitting, sneezing, salivation, suckling, tearing, where nuclei are located
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
involved in the daily rhythms, sensing, appetites, thirst, satiety, sex, rage, osmolarity, temp. control and pleasure, rage
What are octapeptides and where are they released from?
large protein precursors that carry neurohormones, produced at the hypothalamus and released at the pars nervosa.
What is oxytocin?
an octapeptide that stimulates smooth muscle to make it contract
What is the endocrine system?
relies upon hormones from ductless glands, blood or cerebral spinal fluid to affect distant target cells, hormones act at a distance
What are the 5 components of a reflex?
receptor, afferent, internuncial, efferent, and effector
What is the ADH?
anti-diuretic hormone-produced in the hypothalamus, results in lessening of urine, acts on kidney, animals need it
What are some ADH problems?
diabetes insipidus (bland tasteless), or polyuria- large amounts of dilute urine
What is diabetes mellitus?
blood sugar is too high, spills into urine and causes sweet urine disease
What is MSH?
melanocyte stimulating hormone, causes darkening of skin of fish, reptiles
What are aquaporins?
water cannot freely diffuses from parts of cells, but water channels allow this to happen, how ADH allows water to leave urine
What controls the anterior pituitary? and what are the two hormones it produces?
hypothalamus, growth hormone, and prolactin
What causes the growth in the growth hormone?
insulin like growth factors called somatomedines
What picks up the growth hormones?
the hypophyseal portal blood system btwn. the hypothalamus and the anter. pituitary
What is somatostatin and somatocrinin?
somatostatin-releasing inhibitory factors, somatocrinin-causes the release of the growth hormone from the anterior pituitary
What is dwarfism, gigantism, and acromegaly?
deficiency in growth hormone, excessive amount of growth hormone, and excess of growth hormone when you are older
What is the function of prolactin?
involved in the parental and maternal behaviors-mothering mammary gland development, h20 balance
When prolactin and growth hormone overlap what happens?
milk production increases
What are the two subunits of the anterior pituitary glycoprotein hormones?
beta-confers biological activity,
alpha-bind to receptors and is common
What are the three glycoproteins from the anterior pituitary?
luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and thyroid stimulating hormone (thyroptropin)
What are the functions of the LH and FSH?
gonadotropins, stimulate the gonads, then inhibits FSH production, because hypothalamus released the gonadotropin that stimulated the FSH And LH
What stimulates the TSH?
What is the function of the LH?
increase androgen production, and release of gametes
What is the function of the follicle stimulating hormone?
increase gamete development, stimulates conversion of angrogen to estrogen prod
What is the fucntion of the TSH?
stimulates the production of iodinated thyroid hormones, increases basal metabolic rate also
What is the function of POMC?
propiomelanocortin-large long hormone, makes opiates ACTH, MSH, and LPH, and endorphins and entephalins, produced in the anterior pit.
What is ACTH?
adrenal corticotropic hormone-adrenal cortex stimulating hormone to release glucocorticoids
What is LPH?
lipolysis of fat, breakdown of fat, provides nutrients at time of stress
What does all the opiate hormones of the POMC tie together to do?
for stressful sitauations
What is the pineal gland?
located between the cerebellum and cerebrum, has photoreceptors, input from retina
What are the mnemonic devices for the naming of the cranial nerves and their functions?
Oh, once one takes the anatomy final, very good vacations are heavenly.
Some say marry money but my brother says big boobs matter most.
What is the function of the cerebellum?
input from the pons, spinal cord, auditory, balance, visual, adjusts posture, and balance and equilibrium, voluntary and involuntary muscle movements, rate and gait
What is the function of the cerebrum?
sensory and motor and association areas, cranial bones is the names for the cerebral hemispheres
What is the function of the fronal lobe?
emotion, motivation, abstract functions, predict consequences, remove tensions, worry
What is the function of the partietal lobe?
skin, skeletal muscle, viscera, taste
What is the function of the temporal lobe?
auditory, olfactory
What is the function of the occiptal lobe?
What makes up the cerebrum?
3 nuclei, basal ganglion-motor, amygdala, and hippocampus
What is working memory?
memory convert short term to long term
What is retrograde and anterograde?
retrograde-lose long term memory, anterograde-cannot form new memories
What is brain plasticity?
can form new and more connections
What are the three kinds of muscle? and describe each?
cardiac-striated, involuntary and uninucleated, smooth-nonstriated, involuntary and uninucleated and skeletal-striated, multi nucleated and voluntary
What is intrinsic tone? and which muscle lacks this?
can the muscle function without the nervous system, skeletal muscle
Which muscle does not participate in functional synctium and what is this?
what happens to one muscle happens to the others, skeletal muscle
What is the endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium?
endomysium-wraps around individual muscle cells, perimysium is connective tissue that wraps around a group of muscle cells, and epimysium wraps around the whole muscle
What are skeletal muscle cells called?
What are myoblasts?
nucleus that fuses to form myotubules and then form a myofiber by becoming multinucleated, produce actin and myosin
What is a tendon?
connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
What are the subunits of the myofibers?
myofibrils-individual components of myofiber (actin/myosin)
What is lacking in many species that produces MSH?
pars intermedia
What is the pars nervosa?
axon endings from the hypothalamus
What are myofibrils composed of and what are these?
functional units called sarcomeres that appear striated and banded
What is the sarcolemma?
skeletal cell membrane
What is the sarcoplasma?
the cytoplasm within a skeletal muscle cell
What surrounds myofibrils and descrbie it? and what are the bulbous ends of it called/
sarcoplasmic reticulum-calcium is actively pumped into it that requires energy, terminal cisternae
What are t-tubules?
indentations of the sarcolemma, that can be perpendicular to myofibrils
What is the triad?
t-tubules and the two adjacent terminal cisternae
What is a myofilament?
myosin, subunit of the sarcomere
What is the Z-line?, what is the H-zone? what is the A-band and the I band, and what is the M-line?
edges of the sarcomere, the H zone is the subcomponent of the A band that contains only myofilament, A band it the length of the myofilament, the I bands are the actin and the M line is the exact middle of the sarcomere
What is the function of titin?
holds myosin in place, and assists in returning back to original shape
What is the function of nebulin?
achors actin in place, and interconnects myofibrils
What does troponin and tropomyosin do together?
troponin blocks tropomyosin and reveals active site
Describe the neuromuscular junction and its steps?
the alpha motor neurons comes to the skeletal muscle cells where their receptors respond to nicotine. Acetylcholine is leaked into the junction and binds to the nicotinic receptors which allows sodium to flow in.Once sodium intake reaches threshold then a lot more comes in and it looks like a neuron at rest. Now the action potential will spread to teh motor end plate.
Describe the sliding filament theory?
actin and myosin are pulled across one another to shorten the sarcomere. The head of the myosin binds to the protein of the active side on teh actin to create a cross bridge. A power stroke occurs pulling the actin toward the M line b/c the head of the myosin with the help of ATP snaps forward.
What happens if we prevent the release of acetylcholine?
the muscles will be relaxed, flaccid, which will cause us not to breathe
What is tetani toxin? and what does it cause
the umbilical becomes infected and causes rigid peralysis which they are stiff.
What are cramps?
painful involuntary muscle contractions
What happens when acetylcholine breakdown is inhibited?
increased saliva, tears, hypotension, muscles will twitch b/c nicotinic receptors are affected
What is tick paralysis?
female ticks attaches to mating and speeds up production of toxin-four legs go out
What is PSE meat stand for?
pale, soft and exudative
What is myasthenia gravis?
the person's body attacks the nicotinic receptors of the body
What is tetany?
the muscle is contracted and then not allowed to relax
What is temporal summation?
not letting the muscle relax, increase the frequency of stimulation
HOw much energy used in muscle contraction goes into heat?
What is the difference between tetany and treppe?
treppe comes down to rest while tetany doesn't. AS a cold muscle warms the contractions elicit a bigger response
Contracting the muscle releases tension.
it generates maxiumum tension at rest tension is related to the number of actin and myosin cross bridges.
What is the meaning of isotonic?
means same tension. as the muscle shortens force is generated and work is done.
What is isometric?
THE LENGTH OF THE MUSCLE IS FIXED. it doesn't shorten, it develops tension and uses energy. no work is done.
Describe the way we get oxygen in our blood?
glycogen breaks down to glucose..then breaks down to pyruvic acids which are supposed to break down to acetates if there is enough oxygen. HOwever if there isn't then the pyruvic acids can go the lactic acids and then diffuse out of the cell and have oxygen debt that will be paid back to stimulate acetates. But if there is a lot of lactic acid then calcium will stick around longer which can cause cramps and spasms.
What characterizes blood?and how much oxygen does it carry?
hemoglobin, 60 times more oxygen than water
What makes up heme?
four ferrous structures surrounded by a porafin ring, each carries one oxygen atom
How much of blood is cellular?
What are the names of RBC's and WBC's and platelets?
Erthrocytes, and leukocytes, thrombocytes
What is plasma and what is serum?
plasma is from unclotted blood, serum is from clotted blood. 92% h20, and 8% others
What is hematocrit and whats another name for it?
packed cell volume, % of cells by volume, higher in males than in females
How much of the body weight to blood volume take up?
Where are RBC's formed?
in embryo-yolk sav, spleen, liver and bone marrow, in an adult they are formed in membranous bone marrow
What is erythropoiesis?
tissue oxygen demand, if not met kidney produces hormone
What happen if the tissues oxygen demand is not met?
then kidney produces erythropoietin that stimulates bone marrow to produce more RBCs. it begins as a nucleated cells b4 entering circulation
What is the average life span of an RBC?
100days and is destroyed in spleen and liver
HOw many RBC's, platelets and WBC's are in the blood per curbic milimeter?
7-9 billion, 100 to 400 thousand platelets, and 6,000-15,000 WBC's
How much hemoglobin in per mL of blood?
12-15 g
What are porphyrins?
contains 4 pyrole rings, heme is an ex
What happens to biliverdin?
is converted to bilirubin-turns from a bluish/green to a yellowish red and becomes lipid soluble that is not easily excreted.
What is bilirubinemia?
jaundice/iceterus, it is an excess of RBC's breakdown, or a bile duct occlusion
What happens to hemoglobin as it breaks down?
breaks down to biliverdin, then to bilirubin, then to bile to enter the hepatic circulation and gets recycled. Once in the small intestines it emulsifies fats, then will go to kidney to form yellow pigment in urine. Then the iron will be recycled to new RBC's
What is anemia?
decrease in the number of functional RBC's
What is iron deficiency anemia?
DON'T HAVE enough iron to produce hemoglobin
What is vitamin B-12 deficiency?
intrisic factor-protects and aids in absorption, seems to lack energy, needed for RBC production, not producing enough RBC's and then can't carry enough oxygen and get tired as a result.
What will cause the destruction of Vit B-12?
a lot of stomach acid
What is aplastic anemia?
due to drugs, toxins, radiation, things that will destroys the body's ability to produce RBC's
What is polycythemia?
excess of RBC's. when at a high altitude their is an excess demand for oxygen, excercise, lung or cardiovascular disease
What is polycythemia vera?
bone marrow tumor causing excess production of RBC's
What is Sickle cell anemia?
when there is abnormal hemoglobin b/c it crystallizes which changes the shape of the RBC to long, thin cells. Tend to clog capillaries and decrease blood flow. Now it exaceberate the problem with oxygen tension. also starved for nutrients
What is hemoconcentration?
when we lose plasma-lose fluid. Increase cell volume. happens b/c of dehydration, vommitting, diarreah.
What is another oxygen binding protein?
hemocyanin-copper containing protein
What is diapedesis?
this is how WBC's get out of the blood stream by extending a foot through the RBC's
What is Chemotaxis?
WBC in tissue injury, tend to release chemicals that attract wBC's
What is diagnostics?
increase in leukocytes-bacterial infection
What is leucopenia?
decrease in WBC's-viral infection
What is leukemia?
cancer of WBC's, increase in WBC's caused by an infection
Where do platelets come from?
the cytoplasm of huge cells called megakaryocytes-pinched off pieces
What are thrombocytes?
phagocytic and involved in blood clotting in reptiles, birds,etc., platelets
What is the importance of vitamin K
it produces prothrombin in the liver..which helps with blood clotting which is necessary in the body
What are two anti-coagulants?
EDTA cheltaor ties up calcium 2+, and heparin

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