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AP2, Chap 23, Respiratory


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nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx
upper respiratory
function of upper respiratory (inhale)
filter, warm, humidify incomming air
function of upper respiratory components
protect delicate structures of lower respiratory
function of upper respiratory (exhale)
cool, dehumidify outgoing air
pirmary passageway for entering the respiratory system
air enters through
paired external nares, or nostrils
where do nostrils lead to?
opening up into the nasal cavity
space within the flexible tissues of the nose
vestibule epithelium
contain course hairs, extending across nares
prevente sand, airborne particals, and insects from entering the nose
course hairs on vestibular epithelium
made up portions of hte maxillary adn palatine bones
hard palate
floor of nasal cavity
hard palate
separates nasal cavity and oral cavity
hard palate
chamber shared by digestive and respiratory
tissue on laryngopharynx and oropharynx
stratified squamous epithelium
stratified, squamous epithelium
resists abrasion, chemical attack, and invasions by pathogens
where inhaled air leaves pharynx and enters larynx
cartilaginous structure that surrounds and protects glottis
unpaired cartilages that form larynx (3)
1- thyroid cartilage
2- cricoid cartilage
3- epiglottis
largest laryngeal cartilage
thyroid cartilage
consists of hyline cartliage
thyroid cartilage
forms anterior and lateral walls of the larynx
thyroid cartilage
what happens during swallowing?
larynx elevates, epiglottis folds back over glottis (prevents food from entering)
cartilages of Larynx (3)
1- arytenoid
2- corniculate
3- cuneiform
cartilage articulate with superior border of enlarged portion of cricoid cartilage
articulate iwth arytenoid cartilages
opening and closing of the glottis, and production of sound
arytenoid and corniculate
involved in the production of cound
vocal folds a.k.a. vocal cords
the trachea braches with the _____
trachea branching to the mediastinum gives rise to the _____ and _____
Right pulmonary bronchi and left pulmonary bronchi
divides the lungs into pulmonary lobules
interlobular septa
simple squamous epithelium
alveolar epithelium
Type I cells
simple squamous epithelium, thin and delicate
alveolar ducts
thin, delicate, air bubbles
what causes the alveolar walls not to collapse?
surfactant- without it, the walls would collapse
physical movement of air into and out of the lungs
pulmonary ventilation; breathing
normal intestinal fluids PO2?
40 mm Hg
blood entering the systemic circuits PO2?
40 mm Hg
oxygen molecules bind to ___
hemoglobin (Hb) molecules (Fe)
where are Fe ions
at centers of Hb units
important regulator of respiration
increase of arterial blood
prevents overexpansion of lungs during forced breathing
inflation reflex
location of strech receptors for inflation reflex
smooth muscle tissues around bronchioles
inflation reflex stimulated by _____ ______
lung expanion
inhibits expiratory centers, stimulates inspiratory centers, when lungs deflate
deflating reflex

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